The venous system develops from the longitudinal right and left azygos lines which are embryological derivatives of the primitive postcardinal veins.
Cranially, the azygos lines join the persistent cranial ends of the postcardinal veins which form the root of the azygos on the right and together with the distal part of the anterior cardinal vein on the left, form the left superior intercostal vein (Mahato, 2009).
In chronological order of appearance, they are named postcardinal, subcardinal, and supracardinal veins.
The postcardinal veins will atrophy after the anastomoses are established.
Function of Inferior vena cava is initially carried by right and left postcardinal
Progressive changes in the abdomen lead to replacement of the postcardinal
veins by the subcardinal and supracardinal veins.
Persistence of the right postcardinal vein with regression of the supracardinal vein results in the well-known anomaly Retrocaval ureter (1).
In this patient, neither the right postcardinal vein nor the supracardinal vein persisted.
In particular, the postcardinal
veins appear and remain in the pelvis as the common iliac veins, the right supracardinal vein persists to form the infrarenal IVC, and the right subcardinal vein persists to develop into the suprarenal segment by formation of the subcardinal-hepatic anastomosis while the left subcardinal vein and the left supracardinal vein regress completely [2, 4, 6].
The authors suggest the explanation for this varying pattern based on this step of the embryological development of the right renal vein: There was an error on the fusion of the branches to the dorsal mesonephros derived from the right postcardinal vein, the dorsal-medial branches of the right supracardinal vein and the ventral branches of the right subcardinal vein (the latter represented by the IRRV, marked by the presence of its gonadal tributary (Gillot).
For Gillot and Arey (1941), the three pairs of temporary veins (postcardinals, subcardinals and supracardinals) that form the inferior vena cava and its main tributaries constitute masses of vessels of fleeting duration.