In contrast to previous CAP protocols, where all forms of blood and lymphatic invasion were grouped under a single term, lymph-vascular invasion, the updated protocol (version 188.8.131.52 and later) includes separate categories for small vessel invasion (including lymphatics, capillaries, and postcapillary
venules) and large vessel (venous) invasion, and for EMVI and intramural VI.
All types of the disease share the same clinical presentation due to unregulated generation of bradykinin causing leakage of plasma from postcapillary
These telangiectasias, the hallmark of the disease, arise from the dilatation of postcapillary
venules, which directly fuse with an arteriole, thus bypassing the capillary system.
Furthermore, the previous studies showed that SP induced neutrophil infiltration in rat mesenteric postcapillary
venular endothelium by MC-activated (24).
The excessive accumulation of neutrophils in the postcapillary
venules during inflammation causes clogging of the vessels; therefore, there is a decrease in tissue perfusion (3).
venules drain caudally into veins of the posterior group of the medial nasal glands (Figs.
Atherosclerotic lesions recruit inflamed endothelial cells in postcapillary
venues, such as intracellular adhesion molecule-1, E-selectin, and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1.
Senile hemangioma or CA is a vascular tumor which consists of proliferated small vascular channels which have been originated from postcapillary
venules in the upper dermis and it has been mentioned that CA should not be considered as a neovascularization .
Also, it is well accepted that Th2-derived interleukin-5 (IL-5) plays a key role in developing and maturing of eosinophils, enhancing their adhesion to endothelial cells lining the postcapillary
venules, activating, secreting, and prolonging survival through apoptosis inhibition in the tissues .
PH is defined as PH due to left ventricular dysfunction (either myocardial and/or valvular) when PAWP is >15mmHg [2, 3].
The 2015 European Society of Cardiology (ESC) guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of PH further separated PH-LHD into isolated postcapillary
PH and mixed pre- and postcapillary
We supposed that the postcapillary
levels of the pulmonary veins would have been obstructed in this case because the stenosis at the surgical anastomosis and accelerated blood flow of pulmonary veins were not detected.