Despite its early introduction, at a similar time to that of minimally invasive thoracic surgery, the technical difficulties of surgical coronary revascularisation using sole port-access surgery
meant an initial shift instead towards the use of thoracotomy incisions, rather than conventional sternotomies [8, 9].
Unlike port-access surgery
in noncardiac surgical subspecialties, almost all cardiac operations on adult patients are reconstructions that are technically more demanding when performed through an endoscope.
Baptist unveiled a media blitz when it debuted the port-access surgery
The other feature of port-access surgery
, and the one that sets it apart, is that surgeons place the patient on cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), thus stopping the heart before performing port-access surgery