Gliosis with or without encephalomalacia, Periventricular Leucomalacia (PVL), porencephaly
and atrophy are varying responses of brain to any type of insult, mostly perinatal or in infancy but can occur later due to trauma, infection, infarct or haemorrhage.
calves 2 4 Method of death Euthanasia 2 3 Spontaneous 0 1 Bodyweight, kg 49 [+ or -] 4 39 [+ or -] 3 ([double dagger]) ([section]) Axial musculoskeletal system Defect location Cervical 0 2 Thoracic 0 0 Lumbar 0 0 Type of deviation Lateral 0 2 Dorso-ventral 0 0 Helicoidal 0 0 Appendicular musculo-skeletal system Arthrogryposis 0 3 ([greater than or equal to]1 limb involved) Symetric limb NA 3 involvement Forelimb/hind limb NA 0 involvement Forelimbs only NA 2 Hind limbs only NA 1 Head Coaptation defect Prognathism 0 0 Brachygnathism 0 1 Altered profile Horse-like 0 1 Pig-like 0 0 Broken sagittal axis 0 1 Central nervous system Porencephaly
2 3 Hydranencephaly 1 1 Hydrocephaly 0 0 Cerebellar hypoplasia 0 0 Micromyelia 2 4 Characteristic WBD-2 WBD-3 ([dagger]) ([dagger]) No.
and adult stroke related to mutations in collagen IV A1.
Inadvertent fetal skull penetration during genetic amniocentesis has been linked to porencephaly
, the development of cysts or cavities in the fetal brain, yet another reason to "favor the foot, not the face.
For example, if an imaging study obtained 72 hours after birth shows evidence of a long-standing neurologic abnormality such as ventriculomegaly, porencephaly
, or multicystic encephalomalacia, an intrapartum event can be ruled out as the cause of the symptoms.
Pleasant Valley, New York (June 1998), has a daughter who was diagnosed with porencephaly
(a cyst in the brain).
Table: Associated Findings in DW Syndrome: cNS Findings Non CNS findings Dysgenesis of corpus callosum Orofacial deformities Lipoma of corpus callosum cleft palate Holoprosencephaly polydactyly Porencephaly
Syndactyly Dysplasia of cingulate gyrus Cardiac anomalies Schizencephaly Urinary tract anomalies (polycystic kidneys) polymicrogyria Cataract Cerebellar heterotopia Retinal dysgenesis Occipital encephalocoele Choroid coloboma Microcephaly Facial haemagioma Dermoid cysts Hypertelorism Malformation of cerebellar Meckel-Gruber syndrome folia; inferior olivary nucleus Hamartoma of tuber cinereum Neurocutaneous melanosis Syringomyelia Klippel-Feil deformity Spina bifida Lumbosacral meningocoeles Spinal Lipoma
The predominant CNS lesions or conditions were cerebellar and cerebral hypoplasia, hydranencephaly, porencephaly
, hydrocephalus, and micromyelia.
Close differentials include: other disorders of neuronal migration like focal cortical dysplasias, grey matter heterotropia, porencephaly
Early imaging evidence of long-standing neurologic abnormalities, such as porencephaly
Complication that occurs are twin to twin transfusion syndrome, discordant twin, cerebral palsy, porencephaly
microcephaly, multicystic leukomalacia [12-13].
Gliosis with or without encephalomalacia, periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), porencephaly
and atrophy are varying response of brain to any type of insult, mostly perinatal or in infancy, but can occur later due to trauma, infection, infarct or haemorrhage.