Zika/associated birth defects include selected congenital brain anomalies (intracranial calcifications; cerebral atrophy; abnormal cortical formation; corpus callosum abnormalities; cerebellar abnormalities; porencephaly
; hydranencephaly; ventriculomegaly/hydrocephaly); selected congenital eye anomalies (microphthalmia or anophthalmia; coloboma; cataract; intraocular calcifications; chorioretinal anomalies involving the macula, excluding retinopathy of prematurity; and optic nerve atrophy, pallor, and other optic nerve abnormalities); and/or microcephaly at birth (birth head circumference <3rd percentile for infant sex and gestational age based on INTERGROWTH/21st online percentile calculator [http://intergrowth21.ndog.ox.ac.uk/]).
Sonographically, white matter damage presents as focal or diffuse echodensities, echolucent cysts (porencephaly
) in the brain parenchyma, and/or enlarged lateral ventricles .
Neuroepidemiology of Porencephaly
, Schizencephaly, and Hydranencephaly in Miyagi Prefecture, Japan.
The final diagnosis was a simple partial motor seizure caused by acquired porencephaly
. Lifestyle modifications and levetiracetam 1000 mg twice daily were prescribed.
In some calves, we detected multiple, bilateral, and randomly located cystic cavities, most of which communicated with the ipsilateral ventricle (porencephaly
, Aicardi syndrome, olivary dentate dysplasia, mammillary body agenesis, cerebral dysgenesis and cortical dysplasias have been related with this condition.
Spine bifida, hypospadias, porencephaly
, and other brain anomalies, as well as limb reduction defects, are associated with valproate, particularly at dosages exceeding 1,100 mg/day.
Cardiac malformations are associated with carbamazepine, phenobarbital, and valproate; spine bifida, hypospadias, porencephaly
, and other brain anomalies, as well as limb reduction defects, are associated with valproate, particularly at doses >1100 mg/d.
* Hypoxia (porencephaly
, hemi-atrophy, hydranencephaly)
The occurrence of leucoencephalopathy, lacunar lesions, micro- and macrohaemorrhages, porencephaly
, cataract, infantile-onset hemiparesis and retinal arteriolar tortuosity in the presence of a positive family history has been recently related to mutation of the Col IV A1 gene.
Schizencephaly can be differentiated from porencephaly
on MRI by the fact that porencephalic cysts are lined with white matter.
For example, in a case of ventriculomegaly, MRI can help clinicians examine regions of porencephaly
. But Dr.