To establish the relative importance of isotopically distinct foods in the diet among Regensburg's poorhouse residents, we rely on the stable isotopic compositions of collagen (bone protein) and structural carbonate (bone mineral).
Derbyshire's mills chiefly employed women and children, allowing working-class families to substantially supplement their incomes and enabling widows and orphans to support themselves rather than living in Derbyshire's parish poorhouses, which just happened to be, by Eden's account, the best system of poorhouses in England.
Prior to the tramp crisis, the Illinois Board of Public Charities condemned counties that severely restricted outdoor relief because they believed that relegating people to the poorhouse too quickly would demoralize them.
the Keystone Trappe Rock quarry at Cornog (exquisite small specimens of Alpine-type cleft minerals), Brinton's quarry at Darlington's Corners (the world's best large clinochlore crystals), the Poorhouse quarry, West Bradford Township (excellent microcline), Corundum Hill, Newlin Township (good corundum and superb diaspore crystals), the fields around Parkesburg where line rutile crystals may still be found loose in the soil.
Still, the problem of social control remains central to any study of the nineteenth-century poorhouse. The social-control thesis, in the words of David Rochefort, argues that public welfare institutions like the Dexter Asylum "operated on behalf of upper-class interests as a means to maintain an unequal status quo." (14) Poorhouses functioned as a tool of the wealthy, constructed to preserve social order in an era of urban expansion and transformation.