When comparing higher quintiles to the third quintile of urinary Mn concentrations in the second and third trimesters, we observed significant reductions in birth weight, birth length, and ponderal index
[e.g., for women who were in the fourth and fifth quintiles of Mn concentrations in the third trimester, the reduction in birth weight was -21.2 (95% CI: -35.0, -7.5) g and -11.2 (95% CI: -22.2, -0.1) g, respectively, and the reduction in birth length was -0.08 (95% CI: -0.13, -0.03) cm and -0.04 (95% CI: -0.08, 0.00) cm, respectively]; whereas nonsignificant reductions in birth weight, birth length, and ponderal index
were observed when comparing lower quintiles of Mn concentrations (Figure 1; see also Table S4).
Maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy and infant ponderal index
at birth in the Swedish medical birth register, 1991-1992.
The models for the head circumference, birth length, birth weight, and ponderal index
outcomes were adjusted for maternal age at enrollment (continuous), maternal education (ordinal, with the five categories listed in Table 1 assigned values of 1-5, respectively), maternal parity (continuous), infant sex, and gestational age (continuous).
"This study demonstrated that untreated women who would be added to the diagnosis of GDM by IADPSG criteria have similar neonatal outcomes of birth weight z score, LGA, macrosomia, and Ponderal Index
as treated gestational diabetic women diagnosed by Carpenter-Coustan criteria," the researchers concluded.
Adiponectin concentrations in maternal serum decreased with increasing ponderal index
at birth (P = 0.03), whereas infant sex, birth weight, and birth weight according to gestational age showed no relationship with adiponectin concentrations in maternal serum.
Gestational age, birth weight, birth length, head circumference, and ponderal index
were all evaluated as birth outcomes in regression models.
(PI) could identify only 89 babies as having IUGR out of babies who were screened to be having FM by CANS.
We counted the percentiles and SD score (SDS) of body weight according to gestational age and the ponderal index
of newborns, defined as birth weight divided by cubic birth length (kg/[m.sup.3]).
We hypothesize that preconceptional serum concentrations of both maternal and paternal persistent environmental chemicals are associated with reduced birth size measures (i.e., birth weight, head circumference, length, and ponderal index
There were no significant differences between the groups in the rate of infants who were large, for gestational age or who had macrosomia, a ponderal index
greater than 2.85, lung complications, hypoglycemia, or fetal anomalies.
However, there was a significant relationship between CRP values and postload insulin that disappeared after adjustment for ponderal index
. Several cross-sectional epidemiologic studies have examined the relationship between CRP and measures of IR in adults of various ages and both sexes.
We used estimates of association between PFOA and fetal growth and the standard error from each study to calculate an overall effect estimate for the following fetal growth measures at birth: weight, length, head circumference, and ponderal index
(birth weight divided by length cubed, multiplied by 100).