Keap1 serves as a bridge between Nrf2 and the Cul3-Rbx1 E3 ubiquitin ligase, which permits polyubiquitination
of the lysines positioned within the central [alpha]-helix of the Neh2 recognition domain.
CUL9 is the latest member of cullin family, which form E3 ubiquitin ligase to regulate a variety of cellular process by targeted polyubiquitination
Pandey et al., "NOD2 pathway activation by MDP or Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection involves the stable polyubiquitination
of Rip2," Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol.
On the other hand, during plant development or (a)biotic stresses when JA-Ile levels are high, a F-box protein COI1, which is an integral part of the Skp-Cullin-F-box (SCF) complex, targets JAZ repressors by the aid of inositol pentakisphosphate 5 (IP5) for polyubiquitination
; JAZ repressors are subsequently degraded by a 26S ubiquitin-proteasome system, thus relieving TFs blockage and activating the gene expression downstream [19, 73].
It is linked to the lysine side chains of target proteins, which results in monoubiquitination or polyubiquitination
of the protein.
For examples, K27-linked polyubiquitination
of STING provides a scaffold to recruit TBK1 and IRF3 ; iRhom2 can antagonize polyubiquitination
of MAVS and STING and consequently maintain the stability of these proteins [42, 43].
Background: The E3 ubiquitin ligase neural precursor cell expressed developmentally downregulated 4-1 (NEDD4-1) negatively regulates phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) protein levels through polyubiquitination
and proteolysis, but its significance in lung cancer is still unclear.
(50-52) E3 ligases are considered to be involved in Lysine 63 (K63)-linked polyubiquitination
, acquisition of RIP2 kinase function and autophosphorylation at Tyr 474.
Both, HAK48 and K63 ubiquitin have all internal lysine residues of ubiquitin mutated to arginine except K48 or K63, allowing polyubiquitination
to only occur on those lysine residues.
Translation of individual mRNA species into their encoded proteins may be regulated  (e.g., the increase of polyubiquitination
leads to accelerated protein degradation, or increased exocytosis leads to the reduced protein level).
Because Shank3 protein is a core protein of PSD  and Shank3 protein shows polyubiquitination
and loss in AD [28, 29], Shank3 protein was analyzed in this test.
However, because not all tumors express ErbB2 or EGFR and because HSP90 inhibition can also lead to AXL polyubiquitination
and subsequent proteasome degradation , noninvasive imaging with [sup.64]Cu-anti-hAXL may be a useful surrogate for monitoring response to HSP90 inhibition for tumors that do not express ErbB2 or EGFR.