Sex determination and polyploid
gigantism in the dwarf surfclam (Mulinia lateralis Say).
specimens were recognized as were karyotypic mosaics, those with diverse inter-cellular chromosome stoichiometry (i.e.
Self-incompatibility in both diploid and tetraploid Galax is somewhat unexpected in that polyploidy is often associated with a breakdown in self-incompatibility systems (cf., Miller and Venable, 2000; Robertson et al., 2010; but see Mable, 2004) and polyploid
angiosperms often exhibit higher levels of self-fertilization than their diploid relatives (Barringer, 2007).
In this sense, after polyploidization process, it is necessary to monitor the synthetic polyploids
for subsequent generations to verify the chromosomal and phenotypic stability and the possible delayed effects of colchicine (LUCKETT, 1989; CASTRO et al., 2003).
This section is monophyletic, including 24 herbaceous perennials with some polyploid
species and others aneuploids.
Genome composition in polyploids
, that is, diploid (2n), triploid (3n), and tetraploid (4n), can be illustrated by using GISH mechanism.
enhanced fitness in polyploids
. The cost to maintain more DNA and larger
weistii (Li et al., 2000; Fu and Williams, 2008) were the donor of A genome within the polyploid
oats, which was in agreement of our results that A.
can be also divided in paleopolyploids and neopolyploids.
are thought to have arisen from unreduced gametes .
Whit this analysis it has not been found chromosomal fragments, and of the number changes were found polyploid
cells in concentration of 50 [micro]g/ml in a 4-hour treatment (3-cell), and 8-hour treatment one cell.
and Long is an imbalanced polyploid
. Owing to the presence of high chromosome number (2n = 84), it depicted a typically irregular meiotic behaviour (presence of multivalents and/or univalents, laggards, and irregular distribution of chromosomes), abnormal microsporogenesis, and pollen sterility (14-46%) which is the characteristic feature in such kind of imbalanced polyploids