The DNA analyses described here, in particular the co-occurrence of cultivated and wild barleys in each of groups A-D, together with the possibly distinct geographic origins of cultivars in each of these groups, lends support to the growing body of evidence for a polyphyletic
origin of domesticated barley (e.
The many para- and polyphyletic
groups revealed by the present review may seem to contradict this statement, but most of the families and subfamilies recognized by Andersen have in fact been either confirmed as monophyletic by subsequent studies, or are diagnosed on seemingly convincing synapomorphies, even though they still await to be tested against DNA sequence data.
Section Ophelia is highly polyphyletic
, while section Kingdon-Wardia may be derived from within the polyphyletic
Aphylogeny inferred from partial 28S rRNA gene sequences by Cullings (1994) indicated that the myco-heterotropic Monotropoideae are polyphyletic
The groups are mostly polyphyletic
, recognizing commonly shared adaptive features (Reynolds et al.
The venomous brown tree snake (Boiga irregularis) is a member of the Boiginae sub-family within the polyphyletic
taxon Colubridae, and native to tropical Africa, India, and Australia (1).
2, in which he considers the possibility of a polyphyletic
view of origins in which common ancestry is far from universal, but rather a scenario in which there are separate origins for each of "the seemingly distinct tribes or families of species.
It is a polyphyletic
and artificial genus, after Smith and Down (1979), and Holst (1997); it is endemic to the Neotropics, with about 200 species, of which 19 were reported for the Venezuelan Guayana (Holst, 1997).
loveridgei has been regarded to be polyphyletic
and may reflect the presence of cryptic taxa.
The latter group is composed of species that do not fit convincingly into any other genus and is certainly polyphyletic
Because the evolution of a prototypic eye is a highly improbable stochastic event that is not driven by selection, the hypothesis of a polyphyletic
origin of the eyes, arising 40 to 65 times independently, is extremely unlikely and incompatible with Darwin's ideas" (Gehring 2005, p.
The analysis also indicates that Rhantus is polyphyletic