polynucleotide chain

Polynucleotide chainclick for a larger image
Fig. 257 Polynucleotide chain . General structure.P = phosphate, S = ribose or deoxyribose sugar,B = one of four bases.

polynucleotide chain

a sequence of NUCLEOTIDES joined together. RNA generally consists of one polynucleotide chain, while DNA may consist of one chain (single-stranded DNA), or two chains bonded between the bases in a system of complementary pairing: adenine with thymine, guanine with cytosine (double-stranded DNA). The sequence of bases along the chain acts as a GENETIC CODE for the sequence of AMINO ACIDS of PROTEINS. Polynucleotide chains show polarity based upon the position of the bonds in relation to the sugar component. One end of the chain will terminate at the 3′ position, the other at the 5′ position. See Fig. 257 . See also END. The two chains of DNA show opposite polarities (see Fig. 135).
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All PCRs consisted of initial denaturation at 94degC for 5 min., 35 cycles of denaturation at 94degC for 40 s, annealing at 52degC (for the nested-PCR) or 55degC (standard PCR) for 40 s, and polynucleotide chain elongation at 72degC for 40s, and final extension at 72degC for 5 min.
The sequential PCR amplification consisted of initial denaturation at 96degC for 1 min, 25 cycles of denaturation at 96degC for 10 s, annealing at 50-52degC for 5 s, and polynucleotide chain synthesis at 60degC for 4 min.
All PCRs consisted of initial denaturation at 94C for 5 min., 35 cycles of denaturation at 94C for 40 s, annealing at 52C (for the nested-PCR) or 55C (standard PCR) for 40 s, and polynucleotide chain elongation at 72C for 40s, and final extension at 72C for 5 min.
The sequential PCR amplification consisted of initial denaturation at 96C for 1 min., 25 cycles of denaturation at 96C for 10 s, annealing at 50-52C for 5 s, and polynucleotide chain synthesis at 60C for 4 min.
After such chemical modification, the polynucleotide chain becomes susceptible to cleavage by piperidine (30).
The RNA (ribonucleic acid) adjunct also contains the pyrimidine base uracil in its own set of four bases that compose its polynucleotide chain.
PCR was carried out in a total volume of 15uL according to the following temperature profile: initial denaturation of the DNA matrix for 5 minutes at 95degC followed by 33 cycles of denaturation for 1 minute at 95degC, annealing of primers for 1 min at 60degC, polynucleotide chain elongation for 2 min at 72degC, and final elongation for 10 min at 72degC.
PCR was carried out in a total volume of 15uL according to the following temperature profile: initial denaturation of the DNA matrix for 5 min at 95degC followed by 33 cycles of denaturation for 1 min at 95degC, annealing of primers for 1 min at 60degC, polynucleotide chain elongation for 2 min at 72degC, and final elongation for 10 min at 72degC.
In 1953, the structure of DNA was correctly predicted by Watson and Francis Crick that DNA molecule consists of two long polynucleotide chains each of these chains is known as a DNA chain, or a DNA strand which is made from simple subunits, called nucleotides.
One more important bioproperty- chemical polarity of the compounds and structures (water and hydrofuge organics, alkaline and acid parts of amino acids, polypeptide and polynucleotide chains)- was added to this group by the author.
The optimum temperature range for the synthesis of polynucleotide chains in Vitro is 50-60[degrees]C.
On one hand, the contrast interaction between a) water and hydrofuge organic compounds, b) amines and acids in polypeptide chains, and c) polypeptide and polynucleotide chains, which represent the chemically polar substance, support the repulsive forces in prebiotic bisystems.