polymyxin


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polymyxin

 [pol″e-mik´sin]
a generic term for antibiotics derived from various strains of Bacillus polymyxa, several closely related compounds being designated by letters.
polymyxin B a bacteriostatic and bactericidal antibiotic, effective mainly against gram-negative organisms. It is used as the sulfate salt, and is especially effective against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which may cause septicemia, meningitis, urinary tract infections, and middle ear infections. Toxicity is low but there is sometimes damage to kidney and nerve cells. The route of administration is parenteral, oral, or topical to the ear or eye. Oral preparations are not used for systemic infections because the drug is poorly absorbed from the intestinal tract.

pol·y·myx·in

(pol'ē-mik'sin),
A mixture of antibiotic substances obtained from cultures of Bacillus polymyxa (B. serosporus), an organism found in water and soils and obtainable as a crystalline hydrochloride; all are polypeptides containing various amino acids and a branched-chain fatty acid, usually (+)-6-methyloctanoic acid. There are several polymyxins, (for example, designated A, B1, C, D, E, M, T), which are about equally effective against gram-negative bacteria, but which differ in toxicity, polymyxin E (colistin) and polymyxin B being the least toxic.
See also: colistimethate sodium.

polymyxin

/poly·myx·in/ (-mik´sin) generic term for antibiotics derived from Bacillus polymyxa; they are differentiated by affixing different letters of the alphabet.
polymyxin B  the least toxic of the polymyxins; its sulfate is used in the treatment of various gram-negative infections.

polymyxin

(pŏl′ē-mĭk′sĭn)
n.
Any of various mainly toxic antibiotics derived from strains of the soil bacterium Bacillus polymyxa and used to treat various infections with gram-negative bacteria.

pol·y·myx·in

(P) (pol'ē-mik'sin)
A mixture of antibiotic substances obtained from cultures of Bacillus polymyxa, an organism found in water and soils and obtainable as a crystalline hydrochloride.

pol·y·myx·in

(pol'ē-mik'sin)
A mixture of antibiotic substances obtained from cultures of Bacillus polymyxa (B. serosporus).

polymyxin (pol´ēmik´sin),

n an antibiotic substance derived from cultures of
B. polymyxa. Used topically, in troche form, in combination with bacitracin and neomycin in the treatment of various oral infections. Not used systemically; therefore sensitization is minimized. Systemic use may be attended by renal dysfunction and toxicity.

polymyxin

a generic term for antibiotics derived from various strains of Bacillus polymyxa, several closely related compounds being designated by letters.

polymyxin B
a bacteriostatic and bactericidal antibiotic, effective mainly against gram-negative organisms. It is used as the sulfate salt, and is especially effective against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and is also used against Klebsiella spp. It is used mostly in combinations with other antibiotics as a topical dressing including ophthalmic and aural preparations. It is not absorbed from the alimentary tract and is not recommended for systemic use because of its nephrotoxicity and neurotoxicity.
polymyxin E
References in periodicals archive ?
Current preclinical data demonstrated its high efficacy, with the reduced nephrotoxicity as well as attenuated acute or neuromuscular toxicity, against existing polymyxin drugs.
While both isolates were sensitive to Cotrimoxazole and Polymyxin B.
aeruginosa which were biofilm positive showed a significant sensitivity towards Polymyxin B and Colistin.
pneumoniae isolates were found to be resistant to polymyxin B, whereas no isolates were resistant to colistin.
Incidence and predictors of acute kidney injury associated with intravenous polymyxin B therapy.
1%) Polymyxin B 38 (100%) ND ND Vancomycin ND 17 (100%) ND Ceftriaxone ND 6 (35%) 0 (0%) Total 38 (48.
aeruginosa (96%) was sensitive to polymyxin B followed by amikacin (66%) and doxycycline (51%) and it was highly resistant (96%) to cefuroxime.
Though our study has revealed an emerging resistance for polymyxin B (12.
Speaking about the anti endotoxin therapies, he pointed out that this polymyxin B has antibacterial capabilities of destroying bacterial outdoor membrane.
Last-line polymyxin drugs such as polymyxin B and colistin have been used for 60-70 years without developing a significant resistance.
Results of antimicrobial susceptibility test showed that most of the isolates were highly susceptible to polymyxin B and aztreonam, but high resistant incidence rates were exhibited to ampicillin.
The purpose of this investigation was to use distortion-product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) testing to address the issue of possible ototoxicity from the use of neomycin/ polymyxin B/hydrocortisone otic suspension following tympanostomy tube placement.