The carrier molecule is based on polyglutamic acid
capable of attaching to the active agents such as doxorubicin attached to a hydrazone group.
A pretreatment converts the folate polyglutamic acid
forms to the monoglutamic acid form predominant in serum.
Biodegradable polyglutamic acid
(PGA), polylactic acid (PLA), polylactic-glutamic acid (PLGA), as well as naturally obtained, biodegradable alginate, collagen, fibroin , and silk  polymers are commonly used.
Banna Mini-pig Inbred Line, Prokaryotic expression, Nucleoplasmin, Polyglutamic acid
, Embryo development.
Margaritis, Microbial Biosynthesis of Polyglutamic Acid
Biopolymer and Applications in the Biopharmaceutical, Biomedical and Food Industries, Crit Rev Biotechnol., 27, 1 (2007).
The extrapolymeric substance (EPS) produced by Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus licheniformis have carbohydrate components as in levan (fructan) or peptide component as in gamma polyglutamic acid
In previous studies, the molten [alpha] form of L-Glu was eventually transformed into polyglutamic acid
via stepwise changes of a [beta] form of L-Glu followed by a pyroglutamic acid (Pygl) [8-11].
Seymour, "New derivatives of polyglutamic acid
as drug carrier systems," Journal of Controlled Release, vol.
In addition to residual nutrients, there are various functional ingredients such as nattokinase, polyglutamic acid
, and dipicolinic acid in natto after fermentation.
The moisturizer contains an amino acid called polyglutamic acid
that increases moisture and prevents water loss for softer skin; it also contains evening primrose and lavender oils.
Values for the endpoint biuret method were ~30% lower than expected for gelatin, possibly reflecting decreased reactivity of a proline-rich protein, and were ~30%-40% lower than the expected value for weighed peptide content for polylysine and polyglutamic acid
(both poly amino acids ~10-30 residues in length).
The functional ingredients used in the products to demonstrate clinical efficacy included casein phosphopeptide, calcium citrate malate, polyglutamic acid
, heme iron and specific oligosaccharides.