Visceral and skin granuloma annulare, diabetes, and polyendocrine
AIRE variations in Addison's disease and autoimmune polyendocrine
syndromes (APS): partial gene deletions contribute to APS I.
In patients with both TSH and ACTH deficiency or patients with autoimmune polyendocrine
syndrome type II (primary hypothyroidism and Addison's disease), treatment with levothyroxine may precipitate an acute adrenal crisis because thyroxine increases cortisol metabolism [29, 30].
The combination of T1D and AITD is called autoimmune polyendocrine
syndrome type 3 [12,13].
Vitamin D and autoimmunity: what happens in autoimmune polyendocrine
Last but not least, autoimmune polyendocrine
syndrome type 1 (APS-1) should be mentioned.
Sagasta et al., "Autoantibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase in three patients with cerebellar ataxia, late-onset insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, and polyendocrine
autoimmunity," Neurology, vol.
Gottlieb, "Autoimmune polyendocrine
syndromes," The New England Journal of Medicine, vol.
Gustafsson et al., "Cytochrome P450IA2 and aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase are hepatic autoantigens in autoimmune polyendocrine
syndrome type I," FEBS Letters, vol.
Hashimoto's thyroiditis concomitant with sequential autoimmune hepatitis, chorea and polyserositis: a new entity of autoimmune polyendocrine
Inactivating mutations in the AIRE gene cause the rare autosomal recessive disease autoimmune polyendocrine
syndrome type 1, a condition with a similar autoimmune profile to Down syndrome.