Each sea urchin was found to be associated with only one polychaete
. In this study it was observed that sea urchins of diameter in the range of 50 mm to 70 mm were found to be associated with the polychaete
The trends we found have both similarities and differences with the trends found in Russian waters examined over a similar range of predator sizes: echiurans and Snow Crabs increased in importance, and other decapods, polychaete
worms, amphipods, and mollusks decreased in importance with increasing Yellow Irish Lord size (Tokranov 1985).
A team of scientists led by Plymouth University, and including colleagues from the Naples Zoological Station in Ischia; the Marine Ecology Laboratory ENEA in La Spezia, Italy; the University of Texas Galveston; and the University of Hull, conducted a three-year research project into the potential mechanisms that species of worm polychaetes
use to live around the underwater CO2 vent of Ischia in Southern Italy.
For croaker size classes between 30 and 60 mm SL, food categories with relatively high PRIV (>20%) were amphipods, isopods, grass shrimp, and polychaete
The carnivorous polychaete
(Nephtys sp.) dominated the sandy substrates of the perimeter, while bivalves Thyasira sp.
Day JH (1963) The polychaete
fauna of South Africa.
Ecological consequence of the introduction of the polychaete
Marenzelleria viridis into a shallow water biotope of the northern Baltic Sea.
"I sampled that very location for years, and there was no sign of polychaete
worms, nor any indication of suitable habitat to support a colony." He explained that his work included surveying the lagoon, recording environmental conditions and any life forms.
The Macrobenthic invertebrates in this study are categorized as follows: Annelids consist of about 15,000 species (Campbell 1996) including segmented worms, polychaetes
, as well as earth worms and leeches (Hickman 2006); Echinoderms, meaning spiny skin in Greek, consist of about 7,000 different species (Nichols 1969); Crustaceans consist of about 52,000 species (Hickman 2006) including shrimp, lobsters, crayfish, and crabs (Day et al.
Based on an analysis of stomach contents from all three species, it appears that mysid shrimp were distributed across the three habitats in relatively high abundances and that decapod shrimp and polychaete
worms were present in the three habitats in varying abundance at the time of sampling.
The entire jawed polychaete
fauna comprises approximately 60 apparatus-based species (see Plate II for selected forms).