polyarteritis nodosa


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Related to polyarteritis nodosa: polyarthritis, Wegener's granulomatosis, vasculitis

polyarteritis

 [pol″e-ahr″tĕ-ri´tis]
multiple sites of inflammatory and destructive lesions in the arterial system.
polyarteritis nodo´sa a form of systemic necrotizing vasculitis involving the small and medium-sized arteries with signs and symptoms resulting from infarction and scarring of the affected organ system. Called also Kussmaul's disease and periarteritis nodosa.

pol·y·ar·ter·i·tis no·do·sa

segmental inflammation, with infiltration by eosinophils, and necrosis of medium-sized or small arteries, more common in males, with varied symptoms related to involvement of arteries in the kidneys, muscles, gastrointestinal tract, and heart.

polyarteritis nodosa

a severe and poorly understood collagen vascular disease in which widespread inflammation and necrosis of small and medium-sized arteries and ischemia of the tissues they serve occur. Any organ or organ system may be affected. The disease attacks men and women between 20 and 50 years of age. Its cause is unknown, although immunological factors are suspected. Polyarteritis nodosa may be acute and rapidly fatal or chronic and wasting. It is characterized by fever, abdominal pain, weight loss, neuropathy, and, if the kidneys are affected, hypertension, edema, and uremia. Some symptoms may mimic those of GI or cardiac disorders. Diagnosis is based on the clinical signs, results of laboratory tests, and findings of biopsy of sites affected by the disease. Aggressive treatment includes massive doses of corticosteroids and immunosuppressive drugs. Physical therapy helps the patient to maintain muscle tone and prevents or slows the development of disability.
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Polyarteritis nodosa

polyarteritis nodosa

Periarteritis nodosa Internal medicine A connective tissue disease, characterized by necrotizing vasculitis of small to medium-sized arteries, affecting multiple organ systems–GI tract, kidneys, liver, muscle, skin; in > 50%, vasculitis affects peripheral nerves as mononeuritis multiplex or symmetric sensorimotor polyneuropathy Clinical Fever, malaise, myalgia Lab ↑ WBCs, ↑ ESR, 30-50% have HBsAg or HBsAb Management Immunosuppression–eg, prednisone, cyclophosphamide yields ± 90% 5-yr survival

pol·y·ar·te·ri·tis no·do·sa

(pol'ē-ahr'tĕr-ī'tis nō-dō'să)
Segmental inflammation, with infiltration by eosinophils, and necrosis of medium or small arteries; most common in males, with varied symptoms related to involvement of arteries in the kidneys, muscles, gastrointestinal tract, and heart.
Synonym(s): periarteritis nodosa.

polyarteritis nodosa

An inflammatory disease of medium-sized arteries, causing nodular swellings (aneurysms) along the length of the affected vessels. The condition is due to a disturbance of the immune system sometimes triggered by the hepatitis B virus. There is loss of appetite and weight, obstruction to the blood flow causing raised blood pressure, muscle weakness and sometimes gangrene. Involvement of the CORONARY ARTERIES may cause a heart attack. Treatment is with large doses of corticosteroid drugs. Also known as periarteritis nodosa.

Kussmaul,

Adolph, German physician, 1822-1902.
Kussmaul aphasia - mutism in psychosis.
Kussmaul breathing
Kussmaul coma - Synonym(s): diabetic coma
Kussmaul disease - segmental inflammation, with infiltration by eosinophils, and necrosis of medium-sized or small arteries. Synonym(s): polyarteritis nodosa
Kussmaul paradoxical pulse
Kussmaul pulse - reduction or disappearance of the pulse during inspiration.
Kussmaul respiration - deep, rapid respiration characteristic of diabetic or other causes of acidosis. Synonym(s): Kussmaul-Kien respiration
Kussmaul sign - in constrictive pericarditis, a paradoxical increase in venous distention and pressure during inspiration. Synonym(s): Kussmaul symptom
Kussmaul symptom - Synonym(s): Kussmaul sign
Kussmaul-Kien respiration - Synonym(s): Kussmaul respiration

polyarteritis nodosa

; PAN rare form of necrotizing vasculitis affecting medium-sized arteries (male:female ratio of 2:1) during the fourth to fifth decade of life, especially in hepatitis B-positive individuals, causing multisystem inflammation; presents as a vague systemic illness with muscle pains, mononeuritis multiplex (due to vasa nervorum involvement), abdominal pains, severe hypertension, chest pain, renal impairment, arthritis, claudication, cutaneous purpura, ulcers and gangrene; treated with immunosuppressive drugs and antiviral therapy

scleritis 

Inflammation of the sclera, which in its severe necrotizing or in the posterior type may cause sight-threatening complications such as keratitis, uveitis, angle-closure glaucoma or optic neuropathy. It affects females more commonly than males in the fourth to sixth decades of life. Like episcleritis it has a tendency to recur. It is characterized by pain, which can be severe, redness, tearing and some patients may develop nodules (nodular scleritis). It is often associated with a systemic disease (e.g. rheumatoid arthritis, Wegener's granulomatosis, polyarteritis nodosa, lupus erythematosus, ankylosing spondylitis, syphilis, herpes zoster). It can involve part of the sclera, e.g. anterior scleritis (which is the most common, and it is classified as diffuse non-necrotizing or nodular non-necrotizing) or posterior scleritis. Treatment includes topical and systemic steroids and immunosuppressive drugs for very severe cases. See acute stromal keratitis; Brown's superior oblique tendon sheath syndrome.
necrotizing scleritis The most severe form of scleritis, much less common than the other types. About half the patients have one of the following diseases: rheumatoid arthritis, Wegener's granulomatosis, polyarteritis nodosa, systemic lupus erythematosus, or herpes zoster. It is characterized by pain, and white, avascular areas next to damaged areas through which one can see the brown colour of the underlying uveal tissue, and to congested areas of the sclera. In most cases visual acuity is decreased. The necrosis gradually spreads around the globe. Treatment typically consists of topical steroids, immunosuppressive agents and occasionally surgery to repair scleral or corneal perforation. See keratolysis; scleromalacia.
scleritis necroticans See scleromalacia.
posterior scleritis Inflammation of the sclera involving the posterior segment of the eye. The condition is often associated with a systemic disease (e.g. rheumatoid arthritis). It is characterized by pain and reduced visual acuity. The severity of the visual impairment depends on the involved tissue and its location. Signs include eyelid oedema, proptosis, limitation of ocular movements and, if anterior scleritis is present, redness. The ocular fundus may present disc swelling, choroidal folds, macular oedema and serous retinal detachment. Treatment consists mainly of systemic steroids and immunosuppressive agents. See choroidal folds.

polyarteritis

inflammatory and degenerative lesions of the arterial walls in a number of isolated locations.

polyarteritis nodosa
See periarteritis nodosa.
References in periodicals archive ?
Long-term followup of polyarteritis nodosa, microscopic polyangiitis, and Churg-Strauss syndrome: analysis of four prospective trials including 278 patients," Arthritis and Rheumatism, vol.
High dose corticosteroid and cyclophosphamide (generally given as monthly intravenous doses) are used until remission is achieved in treatment of polyarteritis nodosa.
Manifestation of cutaneous polyarteritis nodosa during interferon therapy for chronic hepatitis C associated with primary biliary cirrhosis.
Presentation and outcome of gastrointestinal involvement in systemic necrotizing vasculitides: analysis of 62 patients with polyarteritis nodosa, microscopic polyangiitis, Wegener granulomatosis, Churg-Strauss syndrome, or rheumatoid arthritis-associated vasculitis.
9) Polyarteritis nodosa is a systemic disease which affects the small- to medium-sized muscular arteries.
Key words: Cutaneus polyarteritis nodosa, differential diagnosis, systemic corticosteroids
Type I: Vasculitides that are well described in the non-HIV population group but occur coincidentally in HIV-infected individuals (Takayasu's disease, Behcet's disease, giant cell arteritis, polyarteritis nodosa, etc.
5-8) Miscellaneous extrahepatic manifestations (glomerulonephritis, polyarteritis nodosa, cryoglobulinemia, thrombocytopenia, agranulositosis, aplastic anemia, pancreatitis) are seen in 6.
The challenge of managing patients with polyarteritis nodosa.
More common areas affected include the thyroid gland, blood vessels, and joints, causing problems such as Hashimoto's thyroiditis, polyarteritis nodosa, and rheumatoid arthritis.
Several conditions including polyarteritis nodosa, Henoch-Schonlein purpura, and drug hypersensitivity vasculitis have been described in HIV (5).