Previous studies showed that cultured PXE-affected fibroblasts from carriers and affected patients secrete anomalous families of proteoglycans, such as a proteoglycan population with stronger polyanion
properties and a different content and distribution of HS proteoglycans, especially of those secreted into the growth medium (27, 28).
The first quantitative electrophoretic measurement using agarose gels to separate lipoproteins followed by precipitation with polyanions
(25) and densitometric scanning (26) gave reliable values, especially for LDL-C (27-29) with a revised algorithm as demonstrated by comparison to BQ (30).
Certain reagents, such as polyanions
and divalent metals, were found to selectively and conveniently aggregate and precipitate lipoproteins with appropriate choices of reagents and conditions.
In step 1A, a polyanion
instead of an antibody was used to sterically block the enzymatic measurement of cholesterol from the nonHDL particles.
It is noteworthy that surfactants, polyanions
and acid buffers are less specific to HIV than antiretrovirals (23).
The results of the colloidal iron stain (Figure 1, D through F) for evaluation of glomerular polyanions
showed diminished blue staining along the glomerular capillary walls in both the FBMN and FSGS groups, indicating that both FBMN and FSGS mice had lost glomerular charge selectivity.
The multilayers can be assembled by a simple aqueous process involving the alternate adsorption of polycations and polyanions
through electrostatic interactions .
Calcium adsorbed electrostatically on the cell walls or on polyanions
in the vacuoles was extracted by means of hot 10% NaCl solution.
Negative charges in the endothelium, glomerular basement membrane, and epithelium are collectively known as polyanions
DNA and matrix preparation are important in MALDI technology but can severely limit signal intensity and resolution because the multiple negatively charged DNA polyanions
form salt adducts with cations commonly used in reaction buffers.
This is accomplished by separating dsDNA amplicons based on their size (base pairs) by using a charged electrical field to drive the dsDNA polyanions
to the detector at the anode.
Tungstate and molybdate are prepared for addition to the chromium/copper solution by dissolving their sodium salts in water and acidifying the solution to form tungstate and molybdate polyanions