The entire process, from the deposition of pollen on the micropyle, followed by pollen tube
growth and fertilization of the egg, takes considerably longer in cycads and other gymnosperms than in angiosperms.
PEAMT and GPAT6 also affected pollen tube
growth [46, 92].
Staining and observing pollen tubes
in the style by means of fluorescence.
Pollen grains were considered germinated when the length of pollen tubes
exceeded grain diameter.
Self-pollination at bud stage aims to enable self-fertilization before the glycoproteins reach levels that prevent the development of the pollen tube
(ROBERTS et al., 1979).
The essential role of calcium ion in pollen germination and pollen tube
There are six phenotypic classes of pollen tube
, five of them mutagen namely, balloon, wavy, branch, swollen, thin and only one is normal namely wildtype .
Hoshikawa et al., "Characterization of fruiting and pollen tube
growth of apple autotetraploid cultivars showing self-compatibility," Journal of the Japanese Society for Horticultural Science, vol.
The pollen attributes namely pollen viability; pollen size, pollen germination, and pollen tube
length were measured with the help of microscope and micrometer.
Though a number of existing teaching activities deal with in vitro pollen tube
growth on medium, didactically prepared visualization of pollen tube
growth in vivo is more ambitious and usually needs fixed material and advanced equipment (e.g., fluorescence microscopy).
Pollen viability and germination was assessed in vitro and in vivo as well as pollen tube
growth rate and velocity within the .floral gynaecium, in order to detect possible malfunctions in the pollination process that could explain disorders such as lack of fruit set and excessive nubbin formation.