However, when the cells, including those apparently negative for HCV RNA, were ex vivo treated with mitogens known to activate different immune cell subsets, e.g., phytohemagglutinin (PHA) to stimulate T cells, pokeweed mitogen
(PWM) to induce B and T cells, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to activate monocytes and B cells, HCV RNA was detected in all of the individuals.
The veterans and controls were compared for the percentage of T cells (CD3); B cells (CD19); helper:suppressor (CD4:CD8) ratio; natural killer (NK) cell activity; mitogenic response to phytohemagglutin (PHA) and pokeweed mitogen
(PWM); level of immune complexes; myelin basic protein (MBP) and striated and smooth muscle autoantibodies; and antibodies against Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), HSV-2, human herpes Type 6 (HHV-6), and Varicella zoster virus (VZV).
The blastogenic responses to pokeweed mitogen
and PHA were significantly reduced (p<.05) for up to 60 minutes after the injection.
Many lectins and carbohydrates are known to stimulate different cell types, such as PHA and Concanavalin A which stimulate T cells, pokeweed mitogen
which stimulates B and T cells and LPS which stimulates B cells and monocytes (Janeway et al., 2001).
We tested in vitro stimulation of lymphocytes using pokeweed mitogen
(PWM; Gibco, Paisley, Scotland), concanavalin A (Con A; Pharmacia, Uppsala, Sweden), phytohemagglutinin (PHA; Wellcome, Dartford, UK), or OKT3 mAb (anti-CD3; Ortho) in three different concentrations.