The application of Bergmann's and Allen's rules in poikilotherms
These responses are used as stress and adaptation indicators for invertebrate and vertebrate poikilotherms
(Paladino et al., 1980).
In addition, shrimp of all stages at any location and time are subject to the same temperatures, arguably the second most-important modifier of growth rates (after food availability) in poikilotherms
. Consequently, the growth rate of shrimp of all sizes, stages and ages present at any location will respond simultaneously to changes in the physico-biological conditions in the area, especially food availability and temperature.
Squids that occupy the well-lit epipelagic waters have metabolic rates unmatched by any other aquatic poikilotherm
. Epipelagic squids, most of which are negatively buoyant, rely somewhat on fins for hovering, maneuvering, and stabilization (Hoar et al., 1994).
Temperature plays an important role on development and reproduction of poikilotherms
, such as insects and mites, and it markedly affects the fitness and population dynamics of organisms (Gotoh et al.
Melanomacrophage centers as a histological indicator of immune function in fish and other poikilotherms
. Frontiers in Immunology, 8(1), 827.
Neoplasm in Zoo Poikilotherms
Emphasizing Cases in the Registry of Tumors In Lower Animals.
In order to avoid the effect of climate on the growth of common carps, which are poikilotherms
, samples were taken from ponds situated in various parts of the country.
Furthermore, most aquatic organisms, such as benthic macroinvertebrates, that fish rely upon as food sources are poikilotherms
, and are also limited by water temperature.
In northern latitudes, poikilotherms
must remain below frost line in addition to having cold-adaptive strategies during hibernation.
(3,8) Handling-induced hyperthermia, or "stress hyperthermia," has also been well documented in several other nonraptorial bird species, as well as in mammals and poikilotherms
. (9-15) Surprisingly, few studies have systematically evaluated the stress-related effects of handling in birds of prey.
This supports other studies suggesting that climate change could enhance the harm caused by invasive species, especially poikilotherms
, by removing thermal barriers and allowing them to spread to and flourish at higher latitudes (Brook et al., 2008; Walther et al., 2009).