They found that the nicotine exposure caused the formation of podosome
rosettes, further causing holes in the cells.
Hai's experiments, nicotine appeared to drive the formation of a kind of cellular drill called podosome rosettes, which are members of the invadosome family, consisting of invadopodia, podosomes and podosome rosettes.
Hai subjected rat and primary human vascular smooth muscle cells to prolonged (six hours) nicotine treatment, enabling the cells to form podosome rosettes in response to Protein Kinase C (PKC) activation, which controls protein phosphorylation in signal transduction cascades.
The podosome rosettes set the scene for global extracellular matrix degradation and internalization.
o] leads to cytoskeletal changes such as podosome assembly (72) that may be linked to PLC activation and the associated rise in ([Ca.
Osteoclast cytosolic calcium, regulated by voltage-gated calcium channels and extracellular calcium, controls podosome assembly and bone resorption.
MMP-9 in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia is up-regulated by alpha4betal integrin or CXCR4 engagement via distinct signaling pathways, localizes to podosomes
, and is involved in cell invasion and migration.
In particular, invading cells can remodel structures called podosomes, and this leads to further degradation of vessel integrity.
If confirmed in further studies, the finding that nicotine itself promotes vessel damage by changing podosomes appears to question the health benefits of helping people quit smoking through smokeless nicotine delivery agents such as gum or patches.