pneumomediastinum


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pneumomediastinum

 [noo″mo-me″de-as-ti´num]
the presence of air or gas in the mediastinum, which may interfere with respiration and circulation, and may lead to such conditions as pneumothorax or pneumopericardium. It may occur spontaneously or as a result of trauma or a pathologic process, or it may be induced deliberately as a diagnostic procedure.
Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, Seventh Edition. © 2003 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved.

pneu·mo·me·di·as·ti·num

(nū'mō-mē'dē-ă-stī'nŭm),
Abnormal presence of air in mediastinal tissues; multiple causes include pulmonary interstitial emphysema, ruptured bleb, perforation of the cervical or thoracic esophagus or airways, cervicomediastinal infection, and perforated abdominal viscus.
[G. pneuma, air, + mediastinum]
Farlex Partner Medical Dictionary © Farlex 2012

mediastinal emphysema

The presence of air in mediastinal soft tissues.

Clinical findings
Severe chest pain, dyspnoea, Hamman sign.

Aetiology
• Respiratory tract—trauma to lungs, perforation of upper airways, asthma, Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia.
• GI tract—rupture of oesophagus, bowel.
• Other (e.g., obesity).
 
Management
Usually conservative, as emphysema slowly resolves on its own; in the face of lung collapse, the patient must lie on the side of the collapsed lung.
Segen's Medical Dictionary. © 2012 Farlex, Inc. All rights reserved.

pneumomediastinum

Mediastinal emphysema Critical care The presence of air in the mediastinum, either post-traumatic or induced during mediastinoscopy; the air may percolate into the thorax, resulting in
pneumothorax, or into the pericardium, causing pneumopericardium. See Emphysema.
McGraw-Hill Concise Dictionary of Modern Medicine. © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

pneu·mo·me·di·as·ti·num

(nū'mō-mē'dē-ă-stī'nŭm)
Escape of air into mediastinal tissues, usually from interstitial emphysema or from a ruptured pulmonary bleb.
[G. pneuma, air, + mediastinum]
Medical Dictionary for the Health Professions and Nursing © Farlex 2012
References in periodicals archive ?
Children with no underlying diseases might also develop spontaneous pneumomediastinum. (4-6) Pneumomediastinum may be seen due to alveolar wall ruptures during increased intrathoracic pressure.
Studies have shown that 31% of EoE patients have complications, from which 19% present vertical mucosal lacerations, 8% esophageal perforation with pneumomediastinum, and only 3% Boerhaave's syndrome [10, 11].
PE-negative Finding category Finding n Type I Pneumonia 6 Bronchiectasis & Pneumonia 1 Pneumomediastinum 1 Type II Ground-glass/pulmonary nodule(s) 5 Lymphadenopathy 1 Pleural Effusion 2 Type III Atelectasis 12 Calcified granuloma(s) 3 Lymphadenopathy 3 Pulmonary nodules 2 Osteoarthritis 2 Vertebral compression fracture 1 Healed fracture 1 Hepatic steatosis 1 Pulmonary cyst 1 Enlarged thyroid 1 Previously known infection 1 PE-positive Finding category Finding n Type I Type II Ground-glass/pulmonary nodule(s) 1 Pleural effusion 1 Type III Atelectasis 3 Pulmonary infarct/hemorrhage 1 Small parenchymal hyperattenuation 1 Osteoarthritis 1
Talving et al., "Pneumomediastinum following blunt trauma: worth an exhaustive workup?," Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery, vol.
Nineteen patients in the IPPFE group and four in the IPF group had pneumothorax or pneumomediastinum. Eight (73%) of IPPFE patients who died had a history of pneumothorax or pneumomediastinum.
A chest CT scan taken after 18 days of hospitalization indicated a new case of pneumomediastinum, but the interstitial shadows in the lung field had substantially receded.
Because of suspicion of subcutaneous emphysema and pneumomediastinum on chest X-ray, a computed tomography (CT) of the thorax was obtained simultaneously.
Between 1960 and 1990, when respiratory distress syndrome was aggressively managed by ventilation, without the use of exogenous surfactant, the incidence of air leak syndromes, characterised by pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum, PPC, pulmonary interstitial emphysema, and subcutaneous emphysema, increased significantly [2].
HG can be associated with significant morbidity including pneumomediastinum, renal failure, liver dysfunction, Boerhaave's syndrome, and Wernicke's encephalopathy [1].
Refractory peptic ulcer disease, gastrointestinal bleeding, pneumomediastinum, acute diffuse peritonitis, abdominal abscesses, and sudden perforation with hemoperitoneum have all been the various modes of presentation of GISTs [10-15].
Pneumomediastinum, pneumothorax and pneumoretro peritoneum following endoscopic retrieval of a tracheal foreign body from a cat.