pneumomediastinum


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pneumomediastinum

 [noo″mo-me″de-as-ti´num]
the presence of air or gas in the mediastinum, which may interfere with respiration and circulation, and may lead to such conditions as pneumothorax or pneumopericardium. It may occur spontaneously or as a result of trauma or a pathologic process, or it may be induced deliberately as a diagnostic procedure.

pneu·mo·me·di·as·ti·num

(nū'mō-mē'dē-ă-stī'nŭm),
Abnormal presence of air in mediastinal tissues; multiple causes include pulmonary interstitial emphysema, ruptured bleb, perforation of the cervical or thoracic esophagus or airways, cervicomediastinal infection, and perforated abdominal viscus.
[G. pneuma, air, + mediastinum]

pneumomediastinum

/pneu·mo·me·di·as·ti·num/ (-me″de-as-ti´num) air or gas in the mediastinum, which may be pathological or introduced intentionally.

pneumomediastinum

[no̅o̅′mōmē′dē·əstī′nəm]
Etymology: Gk, pneuma, air, mediastinus, midway
the presence of air or gas in the mediastinal tissues. In infants it may lead to pneumothorax or pneumopericardium, especially in those with respiratory distress syndrome or aspiration pneumonitis. In older children the condition may result from bronchitis, acute asthma, pertussis, cystic fibrosis, or bronchial rupture from cough or trauma. Also called Hamman's disease.

mediastinal emphysema

The presence of air in mediastinal soft tissues.

Clinical findings
Severe chest pain, dyspnoea, Hamman sign.

Aetiology
• Respiratory tract—trauma to lungs, perforation of upper airways, asthma, Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia.
• GI tract—rupture of oesophagus, bowel.
• Other (e.g., obesity).
 
Management
Usually conservative, as emphysema slowly resolves on its own; in the face of lung collapse, the patient must lie on the side of the collapsed lung.

pneumomediastinum

Mediastinal emphysema Critical care The presence of air in the mediastinum, either post-traumatic or induced during mediastinoscopy; the air may percolate into the thorax, resulting in
pneumothorax, or into the pericardium, causing pneumopericardium. See Emphysema.

pneu·mo·me·di·as·ti·num

(nū'mō-mē'dē-ă-stī'nŭm)
Escape of air into mediastinal tissues, usually from interstitial emphysema or from a ruptured pulmonary bleb.
[G. pneuma, air, + mediastinum]

pneumomediastinum

the presence of air or gas in tissues of the mediastinum, occurring pathologically or introduced intentionally.
References in periodicals archive ?
When patients were classified by thoracic injury type, rib fracture was the most common, followed by hemothorax, pneumothorax, subcutaneous emphysema, flail chest, pneumomediastinum, and mediastinal hematoma.
Patient was diagnosed as spontaneous pneumomediastinum secondary to severe cough.
Occasionally, FBA could present with pneumomediastinum (PM), subcutaneous emphysema (SCE), or pneumothorax (PT).
We present a case of bilateral pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum and subcutaneous emphysema following laparoscopic ovarian cystectomy in a patient with recurrent ovarian mature teratoma.
In the setting of trauma if pneumomediastinum is seen in isolation, it is unlikely that esophageal injury is the etiology given its rarity in blunt force injury.
In mechanically ventilated patients, the usual manifestations are copious production of respiratory secretions, pneumonia, persistent air leak around the TT cuff, pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum and subcutaneous emphysema.
Clinical analysis of spontaneous pneumomediastinum.
Gilson (1998) reported dyspnoea, subcutaneous emphysema, air transgression through the open wound and pneumomediastinum as the common findings of tracheal rupture and is treated as emergency.
It is classified as spontaneous pneumomediastinum (SPM) when there is no apparent cause such as trauma, surgery, procedures, or intrathoracic infection [2, 3].
Esophageal perforations due to ingestion of a foreign body can cause complications like mediastinal infection, vascular trauma (aortoesophageal fistula, pseudoaneurysm), paraesophageal abscess, tracheoesophageal fistula, pneumomediastinum, pneumothorax, pericarditis, and some others [10, 11, 14-17].
Between 1994 and 2008, 47 CT-documented cases were reported in another review (2); subcutaneous emphysema and pneumomediastinum following dental treatment on using a high-speed air turbine handpiece were seen in 31 patients.
The PA and lateral view CXRs revealed the presence of retrosternal air, suggesting the patient had pneumomediastinum.