pneumocystosis


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Pneu·mo·cys·tis jiroveci pneu·mo·ni·a (PCP),

pneumonia resulting from infection with Pneumocystis jiroveci, frequently seen in the immunologically compromised, such as people with AIDS, or those treated with steroids, the elderly, or premature or debilitated babies during their first 3 months. In AIDS patients, tissue damage is usually restricted to the pulmonary parenchyma, whereas in the infantile form of the disease the alveoli are filled with a honeycomblike or foamy network of acidophilic material, apparently not fibrin and not stainable with silver, within which the organisms, individually or in aggregates, are enmeshed; throughout the alveolar walls and pulmonary septa there is a diffuse infiltration of mononuclear inflammatory cells, chiefly plasma cells and macrophages, as well as a few lymphocytes. Patients may be only slightly febrile (or even afebrile), but are likely to be extremely weak, dyspneic, and cyanotic. This is a major cause of morbidity among patients with AIDS.
See also: Pneumocystis jiroveci.
Farlex Partner Medical Dictionary © Farlex 2012

Pneumocystosis

Another name for active PCP infection.
Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine. Copyright 2008 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Variable n %N Gender Male 211 97.69 Female 4 1.85 Unknown 1 0.46 Age Group 20-44 years 18 8.33 45-54 years 16 7.41 55-69 years 50 23.15 65 years and older 135 61.11 Race White 167 77.31 Black 32 14.81 Hispanic 4 1.85 Unknown 13 6.02 Underlying Cause of Death Aspergillosis 36 16.67 Blastomycosis 4 1.85 Candida 43 19.91 Coccidioidomycosis 32 14.81 Cryptococcosis 12 5.56 Histoplasmosis 12 5.56 Mucormycosis/Zygomycosis 7 3.24 Pneumocystosis 25 11.57 Sporotrichosis 2 0.93 Unspecified mycosis 43 19.91 Duty Status Active Duty/Active Reserve 8 3.70 Retiree 208 96.29
(2) Extrapulmonary pneumocystosis is diagnosed by the demonstration of P jiroveci cysts or trophozoites in affected tissues.
Extrapulmonary pneumocystosis is, however, a rare complication and represents less than 1% of all cases of infection.
Tuberculosis (17 cases), Pneumocystosis (16 cases), Herpes zoster (13 cases), cerebral toxoplasmosis (10 cases) and hepatitis C (11 cases) were the most prevalent previous opportunistic infections reported in our patients.
Disseminated pneumocystosis without pulmonary involvement during prophylactic aerosolized pentamidine therapy in a patient with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.
All the above observations suggest the possibility of a cellular-immune dysfunction related to a common exposure that predisposes individuals to opportunistic infections such as pneumocystosis and candidiasis.
(1) Pneumocystosis, cryptococcosis, and histoplasmosis are typically seen in HIVinfected patients with profound immune suppression (e.g.
Genetic variation among Pneumocystis carinii hominis isolates in recurrent pneumocystosis. J Infect Dis.
Pulmonary granulomatous pneumocystosis following renal transplantation: report of a case.
Despite recent increases in HIV-related mortality, decreases in the percentages of HIV-related deaths resulting from particular opportunistic infections (pneumocystosis, cryptococcosis, and candidiasis) (9) suggest some success in the treatment and prevention of opportunistic infections resulting from HIV infection and underscore the importance of following recently published guidelines for preventing HIV-related opportunistic infections (10).
These clinical samples included specimens from patients diagnosed with: histoplasmosis (n =10), paracoccidioidomycosis (n = 21), pneumocystosis (n = 6), candidiasis (n = 16), aspergillosis (n = 19), and tuberculosis (n = 20).
Pneumocystis: the 'carrier state': epidemiology and transmission of human pneumocystosis. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol.