Other helpful clues to subtle calvarial fractures include pneumocephalus
, which sometimes may only be a few foci of gas, or fluid within the aerated spaces such as the mastoids (Figure 3).
Risk factors for subdural hematoma after lumbar drainage are overdrainage, older age, and tension pneumocephalus
Loss-of-resistance using air, isotonic saline or a combination of both is the simplest and safest technique, although air causes more complications, including pneumocephalus
The complications of EBP can be listed as lumbar pain, paresthesia, neck pain, loss of strength in the legs, temporary bradycardia, dizziness, and pneumocephalus
Other severe reported complications include neuropathic syndromes, pneumocephalus
(found with use of air for loss of resistance in one case), venous air embolism, cervical epidural abscess, Cushing's syndrome, and death (only one report in the literature; in this case, a spinal hematoma led to acute meningitis that ultimately resulted in a cardiac arrest).
Intracranial complications can include intracerebral hematoma, cerebral contusion, intraventricular hemorrhage, pneumocephalus
, brain stem injury, and carotid cavernous sinus fistula.
The study suggests that the complications of such injuries can be severe, including skull fracture, subdural and epidural hematoma, pneumocephalus
, cerebral hemorrhage, infection, seizure, focal neurological deficits, and vascular complications.
, air in the cranial cavity, is a common occurrence following cranial surgery.
One of these patients developed postsurgery pneumocephalus
that resolved within 48 hours.
A rapid, definitive diagnosis is critical to avoid the serious risks of meningitis, pneumocephalus
, or brain abscess.
We conducted a retrospective case review at a tertiary academic medical center for the complications of pneumolabyrinth with pneumocephalus
and subcutaneous emphysema after surgery for middle ear and cochlear implants.
with neurological deficit from hydrogen peroxide irrigation.