1) Regardless of the etiology, extensive pneumatization
of the sphenoid sinus into the pterygoid process is consistently seen.
1) Diamant has similarly shown minimal variability in mastoid pneumatization
in patients of all ages.
It has been well documented that structural anatomic variations such as pneumatization
of the middle turbinate (concha bullosa) can contribute to the development of chronic rhinosinusitis through blockage of the normal sinus drainage pathways.
We also examined coronal CTs for the presence or absence of pneumatization
, which can obscure commonly used landmarks:
2) Because direct endoscopic visualization of the frontal sinus drainage pathway is veiled by the capricious and complex pneumatization
pattern of frontoethmoid cells, FST has been used as an adjunct to endoscopic sinus surgery.
We classified age of individual Tennessee Warblers as either young (hatching year, HY) or adult (after hatching year, AHY) based primarily on skull pneumatization
7,8) Because of the pneumatization
of most vertebrae (not in penguins), vertebral fusion, and summation, the spinal region of birds is often difficult to evaluate with radiography when no deformity of the spine is present, and advanced diagnostic imaging modalities are recommended.
Not a large enough series of skeletons of any species was examined to speak to their character of delayed pneumatization
of the skull.
of calvarial and upper cervical bones is a rare entity that commonly results from habitual Valsalva maneuvers.
of the nasal turbinates is not an uncommon finding.
Age was assigned based on extent of skull pneumatization
, plumage, and molt-limit criteria (Radley et al.
Incidence and mechanical significance of pneumatization
in the long bones of birds.