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(nū'mă), In ancient Greek philosophy and medicine:
1. Air or an all-pervading fiery essence in the air (which today would be identified with oxygen), which was the creative and animating spirit of the universe; drawn into the body through the lungs, it generated and sustained the innate heat in the left ventricle of the heart and was distributed by the arteries to the brain and all parts of the body.
2. Soul or psyche.
[G. pneuma, air, breath]


An obsolete term for:
(1) The pervasive fiery essence of air (oxygen); 
(2) Breath, intelligence, the psyche, the soul.

pneuma (nōōˑ·m),

n pneuma, the ancient Greek word for vital energy, usually translated as
breath or
soul. See also ki, odic force, qi, and vis medicatrix naturae.
References in periodicals archive ?
The mission of Pneuma Empowerment Group is, "to enhance visions and transform dreams into realities.
The metaphor of the keys represented the five senses, echoing Galen's theory that one cerebral pneuma acts for each sense organ.
At the end of the epistle, al-Razi explains that he will not deal with the topic of why one needs pneuma, since it would take too long and the ancients have already done so ([section] 5.
From these examples, Pneuma does not seem to depend upon patriarchy and social and religious hierarchy to generate itself.
A este respecto, pneuma (espiritu) esta emparentado morfologicamente con nous que es la capacidad de razonamiento y, este lexema esta presente tambien en la palabra dianoia, enunciada en Mateo 22:37, que se traduce por mente; lo cierto es que los escritores neotestamentarios utilizan esta palabra, en todo momento con alusion a que genera, concibe, dice, etc .
As I said in my previous piece, I do believe that the pneuma and the psyche (spiritual and mental faculties) do have a major impact on the soma (physical properties).
But being buried in the prison that is his body, the pneuma remains unknown to man, unsuspected even; only through the supranatural revelation and illumination that is Gnosis can man come to an awareness of the transcendental existence of The All, the Father of Light, and begin to comprehend the true nature of the Universe and his deprived role in it.
His theory of vision assumes the existence of a specific life force called pneuma, which is under a considerable influence of the soul and which reaches the eye from the brain through small channels in the optic nerve.
And Troels Engberg-Pedersen challenges almost all current readings of the Fourth Gospel by arguing that its use of logos and pneuma are best understood in light of Stoic philosophy.
At the time of the Stoics, the hegemonikon psyche was believed to use pneuma and fantasy as well, for the synthesis of the knowledge the soul has perceived.
The word amphiuma comes from the Greek amphi, meaning "on both sides," and pneuma, meaning "breathe," based on a misconception that the salamander can breathe both air and water.
In keeping with the emphasis upon cinematic effects, Elder weaves Dadaist collage and "paracinematic" performance art (such as the Lautgedichte sound poem) together with film as related expressions of pneuma or "induced" thought.