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(nū'mă), In ancient Greek philosophy and medicine:
1. Air or an all-pervading fiery essence in the air (which today would be identified with oxygen), which was the creative and animating spirit of the universe; drawn into the body through the lungs, it generated and sustained the innate heat in the left ventricle of the heart and was distributed by the arteries to the brain and all parts of the body.
2. Soul or psyche.
[G. pneuma, air, breath]


An obsolete term for:
(1) The pervasive fiery essence of air (oxygen); 
(2) Breath, intelligence, the psyche, the soul.

pneuma (nōōˑ·m),

n pneuma, the ancient Greek word for vital energy, usually translated as
breath or
soul. See also ki, odic force, qi, and vis medicatrix naturae.
References in periodicals archive ?
9) An introduction of Lord Li, with full titles and a biography, leads to an apocalyptic picture of the world whence the pneuma of peace has long departed and to a prophecy of Lord Li's Parousia.
He covers pneuma: divine presence and nature in the theology and science dialogue; shunyata: nature and science in Mahayana Buddhism; and pneuma and shunyata: nature, the environment, and the Christian-Buddhist-science trialogue.
The Greek words Paul uses here are pneuma, for "spirit"; psyche, for "soul"; and soma, for "body?
The term pneuma, the central concept around which the whole of early Stoic psychology has been constructed, appears only on three occasions, functioning in all of them roughly as a synonym for psyche (2.
In the west Christian theology has most often privileged logos over pneuma, emphasizing the importance of the (logical) ordering of the cosmos and downplaying or even resisting the equally creative (pneumatic) forces that shake up our worlds, tossing them out of order.
Although Attridge warmly cites Buch-Hansen's 2007 dissertation, neither he nor she refers to its published version, "It Is the Spirit That Gives Life": A Stoic Understanding of Pneuma in John's Gospel (Berlin: W.
Fetid blood collected in the uterus and decomposed, releasing poisonous vapors that rose through bodily pathways called phlebes, fused with the pneuma in the lungs and brain, and were ultimately exuded through breast milk, the evil eye, mephitic breath, venomous saliva, and even through the openings of the ears.
Paul's adoption of Stoic materialism in his own doctrines of pneuma and resurrection.
Under the Hammerli brand, the Pneuma ElitelO features a 10-round rotary magazine.
Scenes of "incense burning lions" and deep inhalations of the pneuma are intriguing, though Radcliffe thinks these rites are for a lone magician in an elite initiatory lineage.
Stoic natural science held that "breath" or pneuma is the living principle of human existence: "a compound of air and 'constructive' fire, that extends throughout his body, with which it is totally blended, giving life and warmth, growth and maintenance" (Sandbach 83).
In adopting the Aristotelian thesis about singularity of being as a proper object of philosophical investigation, Stoics manage additionally to eliminate there the antagonism of form and matter clinging to the Aristotelian particular existent: on the basis of their theory of total mixture (krasis di holon) of matter and pneuma, supplemented by the postulate of corporeality of all being, including pneuma and God, Stoics reach materialistic monism where some fundamental Greek polarities have been disposed of (Sambursky 1959:11-17).