Data reviewed related to patients aged 14-80 years with undiagnosed exudative PE despite thoracentesis, pleural
biopsy or bronchoscopy who subsequently underwent VATS for diagnosis.
All patients had clinical symptoms such as hypodynamia, night sweating and chest pain during breathing and obvious pleural
effusion characteristics, had no pulmonary parenchymal lesions under computed tomography (CT), and had 45 U/L higher adenosine deaminase (ADA) in pleural
Due to the above reasons, in the 8th edition, intrathoracic metastasis with features including contralateral pulmonary tumor nodules, pleural
and pericardial metastatic lesions, is kept as M1a (Fig.
There is a paucity of evidence for the use of closed blind pleural
biopsy in the South African (SA) setting.
In this study, it was aimed to investigate the contribution of biochemical tests and cell analysis performed as standard procedures in pleural
fluid sample before invasive methods in the separation of paramalign (benign)-malignant pleural
The patient became apyrexial two days after biantibiotic therapy Urinothorax resolved after pleural
drainage and relief of the urinary tract obstruction (Figure 4).
Wang et al . reported that the medical thoracoscopy is an effective and safe method for diagnosing pleural
effusions of undetermined causes.
fluid cytology is diagnostic in more than twothirds of cases of malignant pleural
The etiological distribution of pleural
effusions in various series depends on the geographical area, patient's age, and advances in the diagnostic methods and treatment of the underlying causes.
On physical examination, he was found to have clinical features of a small right-sided pleural
 This preference towards the use of small-bore drains is a position further supported by the British Thoracic Society (BTS) Pleural
Disease Guideline 2010 that recommended the use of small-bore chest drains in the management of pneumothorax and malignant pleural
Patients with pleural
effusion of a different origin that underwent thoracic ultrasonography in the clinic for thoracic surgery from January 2014 to December 2015 were included in this investigation.