B, P, and Hyp either directly (pleiotropically
) produce or are tightly linked to QTL producing genetic variability for seed traits in sunflower.
Obviously, this locus pleiotropically
affects the macroenvironmental plasticity of these two traits.
Wang, "MicroRNA-10b pleiotropically
regulates invasion, angiogenicity and apoptosis of tumor cells resembling mesenchymal subtype of glioblastoma multiforme," Cell Death & Disease, vol.
It is reasonable to expect reductions in transformation-induced genomic perturbations to be associated with greater transgene stability, given the potential of these perturbations to pleiotropically
effect transgene expression.
Nonadaptive traits may be retained as long as suitable genetic variance is absent or if they are pleiotropically
involved with other traits that are selectively favored (Harvey and Pagel 1991).
Two QTL near acaa267 and mwg502 may be photoperiod response genes that impact grain composition pleiotropically
. Fortunately for dry-land barley growers in the arid West, the alleles at these loci which confer early heading date also confer increased grain yield and reduced grain protein concentration.
Alternatively, some form of negative frequency-dependent or over-dominant selection, acting either pleiotropically
(e.g., through host-pathogen coevolution: Bremermann 1980; Potts and Wakeland 1990; Hamilton et al.
These regions may contain clusters of QTL (Paterson et al., 1990; and Yadav et al., 1997), which can be resolved by fine mapping, or alternatively, the segment may affect both traits pleiotropically
The correlation among populations in life-history divergence and reproductive isolation raises the possibility that divergence in some life-history trait(s) has contributed pleiotropically
to hybrid inviability.
The Minsoy allele of the U11-M QTL hastened maturity by 3.8 d in 1994 and 2.9 d in 1995, pleiotropically
reducing 1994 and 1995 yield grand mean by 265 and 311 kg [ha.sup.-1], yield beta by 3.92 and 3.18 kg [ha.sup.-1] [cm.sup.-1], and plant height by 6.3 and 6.4 cm (Fig.
In the other class of model, deleterious mutations pleiotropically
affect the values of the quantitative characters measured, although the characters are themselves neutral, and this produces the appearance of stabilizing selection (Barton 1990; Kondrashov and Turelli 1992).
Given the close relationships among some malting quality traits (Burger and LaBerge, 1985), it seems logical that a single QTL might affect several traits pleiotropically
. Spaner at al.