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Patterns of sexual reproduction among parasitic platyhelminths.
A summary of the database pertaining to the phylogeny of the major groups of the parasitic platyhelminths, with a revised classification.
Terrestrial mollusks, arthropods, and vertebrates are tolerant of desiccation and therefore are more fully terrestrial than are cryptozoic taxa such as platyhelminths, nemerteans, annelids, and onychophorans (Little 1983).
Platyhelminths, primarily represented by Digenea (flukes), were the most prevalent helminths found.
Molluscs belong to the superphylum Lophotrochozoa that also includes annelids, platyhelminths, and a range of other phyla members (Graham 2000).
Patterns of parasite morphological diversification were investigated using a morphological data base for the parasitic platyhelminths comprising 1,459 characters analyzed using phylogenetic systematic methods.
2009) includes molluscs, annelids, nemertines, the lophophorates, platyhelminths, and other smaller phyla).
Originally identified in mammalian tissues, NO has been identified in the signaling cascades of many invertebrates such as coelenterates, platyhelminths, nematodes, annelids, molluscs, arthropods, echinoderms, and urochordates (Martinez, 1995; Midler, 1997).
A good example is the mariner which, by being functional in both germ lines and somatic cell lines, could infect many organisms, crossing several phyletic borders (arthropods, platyhelminths, nematodes, chordates), probably by splicing into viral or other pathogenic genomes.