platelet count


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Platelet Count

 

Definition

A platelet count is a diagnostic test that determines the number of platelets in the patient's blood. Platelets, which are also called thrombocytes, are small disk-shaped blood cells produced in the bone marrow and involved in the process of blood clotting. There are normally between 150,000-450,000 platelets in each microliter of blood. Low platelet counts or abnormally shaped platelets are associated with bleeding disorders. High platelet counts sometimes indicate disorders of the bone marrow.

Purpose

The primary functions of a platelet count are to assist in the diagnosis of bleeding disorders and to monitor patients who are being treated for any disease involving bone marrow failure. Patients who have leukemia, polycythemia vera, or aplastic anemia are given periodic platelet count tests to monitor their health.

Description

Blood collection and storage

Platelet counts use a freshly-collected blood specimen to which a chemical called EDTA has been added to prevent clotting before the test begins. About 5 mL of blood are drawn from a vein in the patient's inner elbow region. Blood drawn from a vein helps to produce a more accurate count than blood drawn from a fingertip. Collection of the sample takes only a few minutes.
After collection, the mean platelet volume of EDTA-blood will increase over time. This increase is caused by a change in the shape of the platelets after removal from the body. The changing volume is relatively stable for a period of one to three hours after collection. This period is the best time to count the sample when using electronic instruments, because the platelets will be within a standard size range.

Counting methods

Platelets can be observed in a direct blood smear for approximate quantity and shape. A direct smear is made by placing a drop of blood onto a microscope slide and spreading it into a thin layer. After staining to make the various blood cells easier to see and distinguish, a laboratory technician views the smear through a light microscope. Accurate assessment of the number of platelets requires other methods of counting. There are three methods used to count platelets; hemacytometer, voltage-pulse counting, and electro-optical counting.
HEMACYTOMETER COUNTING. The microscopic method uses a phase contrast microscope to view blood on a hemacytometer slide. A sample of the diluted blood mixture is placed in a hemacytometer, which is an instrument with a grid etched into its surface to guide the counting. For a proper count, the platelets should be evenly distributed in the hemacytometer. Counts made from samples with platelet clumping are considered unreliable. Clumping can be caused by several factors, such as clotting before addition of the anticoagulant and allowing the blood to remain in contact with a capillary blood vessel during collection. Errors in platelet counting are more common when blood is collected from capillaries than from veins.
ELECTRONIC COUNTING. Electronic counting of platelets is the most common method. There are two types of electronic counting, voltage-pulse and electro-optical counting systems. In both systems, the collected blood is diluted and counted by passing the blood through an electronic counter. The instruments are set to count only particles within the proper size range for platelets. The upper and lower levels of the size range are called size exclusion limits. Any cells or material larger or smaller than the size exclusion limits will not be counted. Any object in the proper size range is counted, however, even if it isn't a platelet. For these instruments to work properly, the sample must not contain other material that might mistakenly be counted as platelets. Electronic counting instruments sometimes produce artificially low platelet counts. If a platelet and another blood cell pass through the counter at the same time, the instrument will not count the larger cell because of the size exclusion limits, which will cause the instrument to accidentally miss the platelet. Clumps of platelets will not be counted because clumps exceed the upper size exclusion limit for platelets. In addition, if the patient has a high white blood cell count, electronic counting may yield an unusually low platelet count because white blood cells may filter out some of the platelets before the sample is counted. On the other hand, if the red blood cells in the sample have burst, their fragments will be falsely counted as platelets.

Aftercare

Because platelet counts are sometimes ordered to diagnose or monitor bleeding disorders, patients with these disorders should be cautioned to watch the puncture site for signs of additional bleeding.

Risks

Risks for a platelet count test are minimal in normal individuals. Patients with bleeding disorders, however, may have prolonged bleeding from the puncture wound or the formation of a bruise (hematoma) under the skin where the blood was withdrawn.

Normal results

The normal range for a platelet count is 150,000-450,000 platelets per microliter of blood.

Key terms

Capillaries — The smallest of the blood vessels that bring oxygenated blood to tissues.
EDTA — A colorless compound used to keep blood samples from clotting before tests are run. Its chemical name is ethylene-diamine-tetra-acetic acid.
Hemocytometer — An instrument used to count platelets or other blood cells.
Phase contrast microscope — A light microscope in which light is focused on the sample at an angle to produce a clearer image.
Thrombocyte — Another name for platelet.
Thrombocytopenia — An abnormally low platelet count.
Thrombocytosis — An abnormally high platelet count. It occurs in polycythemia vera and other disorders in which the bone marrow produces too many platelets.

Abnormal results

An abnormally low platelet level (thrombocytopenia) is a condition that may result from increased destruction of platelets, decreased production, or increased usage of platelets. In idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP), platelets are destroyed at abnormally high rates. Hypersplenism is characterized by the collection (sequestration) of platelets in the spleen. Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a condition in which blood clots occur within blood vessels in a number of tissues. All of these diseases produce reduced platelet counts.
Abnormally high platelet levels (thrombocytosis) may indicate either a benign reaction to an infection, surgery, or certain medications; or a disease like polycythemia vera, in which the bone marrow produces too many platelets too quickly.

Resources

Books

Berktow, Robert, et al., editors. Merck Manual of Medical Information. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck Research Laboratories, 2004.

count

 [kownt]
a numerical computation or indication.
Addis count the determination of the number of erythrocytes, leukocytes, epithelial cells, and casts, and the protein content in an aliquot of a 12-hour urine specimen; used in the diagnosis and management of kidney disease.
blood count (blood cell count) see blood count.
blood count, complete a series of tests of the peripheral blood, including the erythrocyte count, erythrocyte indices, leukocyte counts, and sometimes platelet count.
blood count, differential differential leukocyte count.
erythrocyte count determination of the number of erythrocytes in a unit volume of blood that has been diluted in an isotonic solution, done with an automatic counter such as a flow cytometer. Called also red blood cell or red cell count.
leukocyte count determination of the number of leukocytes in a unit volume of blood, usually after the erythrocytes have been lysed and the blood has been diluted; it may be done either manually with a hemacytometer or electronically. See total leukocyte c. and differential leukocyte c. Called also white blood cell or white cell count.
leukocyte count, differential a leukocyte count that calculates the percentages of different types. See also total leukocyte count.
leukocyte count, total a leukocyte count measuring the total number of all the types in a given volume of blood. See also differential leukocyte count.
platelet count determination of the total number of platelets per cubic millimeter of blood; the direct platelet count simply counts the cells using a microscope, and the indirect platelet count determines the ratio of platelets to erythrocytes on a peripheral blood smear and computes the number of platelets from the erythrocyte count.
red blood cell count (red cell count) erythrocyte count.
reticulocyte count a calculation of the number of reticulocytes in 1 cu mm of peripheral blood, recorded either as an absolute number or as the percentage of the erythrocyte count. It provides a means of assessing the erythropoietic activity of the bone marrow.
white blood cell count (white cell count) leukocyte count.

platelet count

Enumeration of circulating platelets Specimen Blood, EDTA–lavender top-tube Ref range 150-450 x 109/L–US: 150-400 000/µL–mm3; 'panic' values: < 20 x 109/L–US: < 20 000/µL; > 1000 x 109/L–US: 1,000,000/µL ↑ in Myeloproliferative disorders and/or polycythemia vera, and less commonly with infections, blood loss, and splenectomy; rare causes of ↑ PC include anemia–hemolytic, iron-deficiency,
sickle cell, cirrhosis, collagen vascular disease, cryoglobulinemia, drugs–
epinephrine, OCs, exercise, hemorrhage, hypoxia, ITP, post-partum, pregnancy, rheumatoid arthritis, TB ↓ in < 0.02 x 1012/L–US: 20 000/mm3–µL are associated with ↑ bleeding tendency; platelets are ↓ in malignacies of bone, GI tract, brain, leukemia, kidney or liver disease, aplastic anemia, DIC, ITP, SLE, drugs associated with ↓ PC: aspirin, chemotherapeutic agents, chloromycetin, phenylbutazone, quinidine, thiazide diuretics, tolbutamide. See Platelet concentrate.
References in periodicals archive ?
Diagnostic accuracy of platelet count and platelet indices in noninvasive assessment of fibrosis in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease patients.
Unlike in non-ICU patients, this judgment might be very difficult in ICU cases because of the complexity of patients' condition owing to the presence of a myriad of concomitant cofactors that could be hardly controlled.10 Factors that negatively affect the increase in platelet count after platelet transfusions are using stored platelets for a long-term, fever/infection, and presence of splenomegaly in the recipient.40
Only 1% of women with uncomplicated pregnancies had platelet counts less than 100,000/[mm.sup.3] during pregnancy or at delivery, and just five women (0.1%) had unexplained platelet counts below 80,000/[mm.sup.3].
Table-1: Group Statistics of mean platelet volume (MPV) values and platelet counts (PLT).
Predictive Value of Preoperative Platelet Count. To investigate the impact of the preoperative platelet count on postoperative outcomes including PHLF, morbidity, and 30-day mortality, we performed univariate and multivariate regression analysis.
Eltrombopag also stimulates trilineage proliferation of hematopoietic stem cells [6], and it has been reported to be effective for aplastic anemia refractory to immunosuppression, improving the hemoglobin level and neutrophil count as well as the platelet count [7].
Of the 201 patients studied, 75 (37%) had postoperative thrombocytosis (platelets [greater than or equal to] 500 x [10.sup.9]/L, range 501-1136), 4 (1.9%) of which had platelet count [greater than or equal to] 1000 x [10.sup.9]/L, 120 (59%) had postoperative normocytosis (platelets < 500 x [10.sup.9]/ L, range 107-499), and 6 (2.9%) patients were excluded due to insufficient retrievable data.
Predictable platelet count /splenic###True positive (a)###False positive (b)
Platelet count is the component of complete blood count that is used to diagnose quantitative defect in platelets.
The study, now published online in&nbsp;The British Journal of General Practice, revealed that high blood platelet count in&nbsp;some cases may be the only outward indication of cancer.
TEHRAN (FNA)- Having a high blood platelet count is a strong predictor of cancer and should be urgently investigated to save lives, according to a large-scale study.

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