Peripheral nervous system plasmalogens
regulate Schwann cell differentiation and myelination.
Overall, cells treated with 10 [micro]M MEHP showed significantly higher levels of all glycerolipids (FA, MG, DG), PC, PS, phosphatidylserine plasmalogens
(PS-P), and phosphatidic acid plasmalogens
(PA-P) than cells treated with 0.1 [micro]M MEHP or controls showed.
These products are highly reactive and will oxidize plasmalogens
, which are enriched in lung and surfactant, to form chlorinated lipids (Cl-lipids), 2-chloropalmitaldehyde and 2-chlorostearalddehyde.
Ishikawa et al., "Myo-inositol treatment increases serum plasmalogens
and decreases small dense LDL, particularly in hyperlipidemic subjects with metabolic syndrome," Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology (Tokyo), vol.
Juaneda et al., "Red blood cell plasmalogens
and docosahexaenoic acid are independently reduced in primary open-angle glaucoma," Experimental Eye Research, vol.
There are also ether PLs: the most important ones are the "plasmalogens
" (often from PC and PE species) which possess a vinyl ether in the sn-1 position and can be formally considered as the reaction products of a fatty aldehyde with a hydroxyl group of the glycerol.
Peroxisomes are single-membrane-bounded ubiquitous organelles containing a hundred different enzymes that catalyze various metabolic pathways, including O-oxidation of very long-chain fatty acids, the synthesis of ether lipids such as plasmalogens
, and bile-acid metabolism (1) (Table 1).
pLPE Self mLPA Self eLPA Self Oils Triacylglyceride Self Terpenes Squalene Self Diacylglycerolipids GalDAG B.
It mostly exists in the forms of phospholipids phosphatidylcholine (lecithin), lysophosphatidylcholine, choline plasmalogens
and sphingomyelin, and is widely distributed in all plant and animal cells (Zeisel, 1990).
As a result, plasmalogens
which are required for normal brain and skeletal formation are abnormal resulting in clinical manifestions RCDP1, RCDP2, and RCDP3 are characterized by rhizomelic shortening, mainly affecting the humerus, facial dysmorphism, seizures, cataracts, and joint contractures.
Their origin and how they transform cholesterol, phospholipids, plasmalogens
, polyunsaturated fatty acids, sugars, and proteins into deleterious products," Free Radical Biology and Medicine, vol.