plasma viral load

plasma viral load (PVL),

the plasma level of viral RNA, as determined by various techniques including target amplification assay by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and branched DNA technology with signal amplification. Because levels of detection vary with method, results of testing by different methods are not comparable.

Serial measurement of HIV viral load is a standard procedure to monitor the course of AIDS. Reported as the number of copies of viral RNA per mL of plasma, assessment of viral load provides important information about the number of lymphoid cells actively infected with HIV. This laboratory procedure has supplanted the CD4 count as an indicator of prognosis for people infected with HIV, in determining when to start antiretroviral therapy, and in measuring the response to therapy. Because the CD4 count is regarded as superior in determining the level of immune compromise and the risk of opportunistic infection, both tests are currently used. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services advises starting antiretroviral therapy when plasma HIV RNA concentration exceeds 10,000-20,000 copies/mL. The International AIDS Society favors an action level of 30,000 copies/mL. When, as a result of treatment, the number of copies of viral RNA falls below the level that can be detected by standard methods, replication of HIV is considered to have been suppressed. In no case, however, has AIDS been cured, nor has viral proliferation remained arrested after cessation of antiretroviral therapy.

References in periodicals archive ?
(1) Although the magnitude of maternal HIV-1 RNA plasma viral load is the main risk factor in MTCT, genetic characteristics play an important role in HIV-1 transmission to children born to HIV-infected mothers.
An HIV diagnosis during pregnancy, initiation of antiretroviral therapy in the third trimester, plasma viral load of ≥500 copies/mL, and delivery between 37 and 40 weeks were correlated with increased likelihood of HIV-indicated cesarean delivery in multivariable analysis.
Second, Models of acute phase plasma viral load obscure early local dynamics of hiv when the virus forms local, Heterogeneous clusters of infection in the genital mucosa before entering the lymphatic and blood systems.
Plasma viral load testing with its reliance on sophisticated laboratories and patented PCR kits has also been extremely challenging to scale up in resource limited settings.
The majority of patients adhering to a prescribed ART regimen achieve sustainable viral suppression, as indicated by undetectable plasma viral load (VL) (<50 copies/mL) [2].
DURBAN, SOUTH AFRICA -- Long-acting injectable antiretroviral therapy with cabotegravir and rilpivirine in nanosuspension successfully suppressed HIV-infected patients' plasma viral load to fewer than 50 copies /mL for 48 weeks as maintenance therapy in the LATTE-2 trial, David A.
However, this over-quantification was observed mainly in specimens with a plasma viral load of <3 000 copies/mL (mean (SD) difference 0.38 (0.19)), while the difference for samples with a plasma viral load of >3 000 copies/mL was negligible (0.09 (0.26)).
It has been suggested that transmission by someone with an undetectable plasma viral load might be more likely in anal sex.
It is worth noting that these 4 patients were singled out as possible carriers of ciHHV-6 on the basis of HHV-6 plasma viral load levels that were being monitored regularly over time in the context of a research study.
MT Is Not Associated with Plasma Viral Load, CD[4.sup.+] T Cell Count, Presence of Infectious Virus, or Route of Infection in the SHIV-Infected Chinese Macaques.
Additional plasma viral load tests performed on blood from the infant over the first three weeks of life again indicated HIV infection.
The cost of providing universal access has become unsustainable, and accumulating evidence underscores the detrimental effects of persistent HIV infection even while plasma viral load is low and CD4 cell count is high.