plasma viral load

plasma viral load (PVL),

the plasma level of viral RNA, as determined by various techniques including target amplification assay by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and branched DNA technology with signal amplification. Because levels of detection vary with method, results of testing by different methods are not comparable.

Serial measurement of HIV viral load is a standard procedure to monitor the course of AIDS. Reported as the number of copies of viral RNA per mL of plasma, assessment of viral load provides important information about the number of lymphoid cells actively infected with HIV. This laboratory procedure has supplanted the CD4 count as an indicator of prognosis for people infected with HIV, in determining when to start antiretroviral therapy, and in measuring the response to therapy. Because the CD4 count is regarded as superior in determining the level of immune compromise and the risk of opportunistic infection, both tests are currently used. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services advises starting antiretroviral therapy when plasma HIV RNA concentration exceeds 10,000-20,000 copies/mL. The International AIDS Society favors an action level of 30,000 copies/mL. When, as a result of treatment, the number of copies of viral RNA falls below the level that can be detected by standard methods, replication of HIV is considered to have been suppressed. In no case, however, has AIDS been cured, nor has viral proliferation remained arrested after cessation of antiretroviral therapy.

References in periodicals archive ?
However, this over-quantification was observed mainly in specimens with a plasma viral load of <3 000 copies/mL (mean (SD) difference 0.
His Western blot HIV serology was undetermined but plasma viral load was high.
It has been suggested that transmission by someone with an undetectable plasma viral load might be more likely in anal sex.
Additional plasma viral load tests performed on blood from the infant over the first three weeks of life again indicated HIV infection.
And if so, would that affect our treatment strategy for these individuals, because primarily, our way of diagnosing and also following an individual is using the plasma viral load or their CD4 count.
The gold standard for monitoring of antiretroviral treatment is regular monitoring of plasma viral load, both to determine that undetectable viral load has been achieved after starting treatment and to ensure that viral load does not rebound above 50 or 400 copies/ml, the limit of detection of the viral load test.
Over an 18-year period in a well-characterised HIV-2 community cohort in rural Guinea-Bissau, undetectable plasma viral load at baseline predicted both the continued absence of detectable viraemia, as well as survival not appreciably different from HIV-uninfected controls (9).
In addition, increased HAART coverage was associated with a decrease in the community HIV plasma viral load in British Columbia.
for up to 5 years, looking at changes in their vaginal bacteria as well as changes in the vaginal viral load and their plasma viral load.
A statement in the Introduction to "Mathematical Modeling of AIDS Progression: Limitations, Expectations, and Future Directions" by Rebecca Culshaw, J Am Phys Surg 2006;11:101-105, should read: "A recent paper published on the correlation between viral load and CD4+ decline in unmedicated HIV-positive individuals found that very little (typically 4-6%) of the observed variation in CD4+ decline could be accounted for by plasma viral load levels.
Although the causes for these failures could be many, we noted that in management of HBV-infected healthcare workers, inference of infectivity is now based upon plasma viral load for HBV rather than HBe markers.
BOSTON -- Women on highly active antiretroviral therapy for human immunodeficiency virus whose plasma viral load is below detectable levels may continue to shed the virus intermittently in the genital tract, Dr.