plasma exchange


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Related to plasma exchange: plasma exchange therapy

exchange

 [eks-chānj´]
1. the substitution of one thing for another.
2. to substitute one thing for another.
gas exchange the passage of oxygen and carbon dioxide in opposite directions across the alveolocapillary membrane.
health care information exchange in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as providing patient care information to health professionals in other agencies.
impaired gas exchange a nursing diagnosis approved by the North American Nursing Diagnosis Association, defined as excess or deficit in oxygenation and/or carbon dioxide elimination at the alveolocapillary membrane (see gas exchange). Etiological and contributing factors include an altered oxygen supply, changes in the alveolar-capillary membrane, altered blood flow, and altered oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood. Defining characteristics include changes in mental status such as confusion, somnolence, restlessness, and irritability; ineffective coughing and inability to move secretions from the air passages; hypercapnia; and hypoxia. For specific medical treatments and nursing interventions, see airway clearance, ineffective; breathing patterns, ineffective; chronic airflow limitation; and anemia.
plasma exchange see plasma exchange.

plasma

 [plaz´mah]
1. the fluid portion of the lymph.
2. the fluid portion of the blood, in which the formed elements (blood cells) are suspended. Plasma is to be distinguished from serum, which is plasma from which the fibrinogen has been separated in the process of clotting. Called also blood plasma. adj., adj plasmat´ic, plas´mic.

Of the total volume of blood, 55 per cent is made up of plasma. It is a clear, straw-colored liquid, 92 per cent water, in which are contained plasma proteins, inorganic salts, nutrients, gases, waste materials from the cells, and various hormones, secretions, and enzymes. These substances are transported to or from the tissues of the body by the plasma.

Plasma obtained from blood donors is given to persons suffering from loss of blood or from shock to help maintain adequate blood pressure. Since plasma can be dried and stored in bottles, it can be transported almost anywhere, ready for immediate use after addition of the appropriate fluid. Plasma can be given to anyone, regardless of blood type. (See also transfusion.)

Plasma volume is sometimes measured in order to calculate the total blood volume. The most common method for determining plasma volume is by injection of a dye (T-1824, called Evans blue) into the circulating blood and, after the dye has been dispersed throughout the body, using the dilution of the dye to calculate the total blood volume.
antihemophilic human plasma normal human plasma that has been processed promptly to preserve the antihemophilic properties of the original blood; used for temporary correction of bleeding tendency in hemophilia.
blood plasma plasma (def. 2).
citrated plasma blood plasma treated with sodium citrate, which prevents clotting.
plasma exchange the removal of plasma from withdrawn blood (plasmapheresis) and retransfusion of the formed elements and type-specific fresh frozen plasma into the donor; done for removal of circulating antibodies or abnormal plasma components.
fresh frozen plasma plasma separated from whole blood and frozen within 8 hours; it contains all the coagulation factors.
plasma thromboplastin antecedent deficiency hemophilia C.

plasma exchange

Etymology: Gk, plassein, to mold; L, ex + cambire, to change; Gk, therapeia, treatment
a method of treating certain diseases by removing a part of the patient's plasma and replacing it with albumin, plasma, or other fluids. The goal may be to reduce a pathogenic molecule, protein, autoantibody, alloantibody, immune-complex, drug, toxin, or inhibitor, or to replace deficient plasma with normal plasma. Also called therapeutic plasmapheresis.

plasma

the fluid portion of the blood in which corpuscles are suspended. Plasma is to be distinguished from serum, which is plasma from which the fibrinogen has been separated in the process of clotting.

plasma bound
many electrolytes exist in plasma in a form in which they are bound to protein which reduces their lability and liability to loss in the urine, e.g. protein-bound iodine.
plasma cell gingitivitis-pharyngitis
see feline plasma cell gingivitis-pharyngitis.
plasma cell myeloma
see multiple myeloma.
plasma cell pododermatitis
a nonpainful swelling with ulceration and exuberant granulation tissue on the footpads of cats. The cause is unknown but believed to be immunological.
Enlarge picture
Plasma cell pododermatitis in a cat.
plasma clearing factor
a lipoprotein lipase which lipolyses the triglyceride in the chylomicrons of the plasma and hence clears it of cloudiness.
plasma exchange
the removal of plasma from withdrawn blood (plasmapheresis) and retransfusion of the formed elements and type-specific fresh-frozen plasma into the donor; done for removal of circulating antibodies or abnormal plasma components.
plasma expanders
see plasma volume expander.
fresh-frozen plasma
prepared from whole blood; a source of coagulation factors.
plasma protein
the heterologous group of proteins in circulating blood that includes albumin, lipoproteins, glycoproteins, transcortin, haptoglobin, ceruloplasmin, cholinesterase, α2-macroglobulin, erythropoietin, transferrin, hemopexin, fibrinogen, plasminogen and the immunoglobulins (γ-globulins).
plasma protein:fibrinogen (PP:F) ratio
an indicator of significant changes in fibrinogen levels, taking into account dehydration.
plasma substitute
a fluid suitable for use as a replacement for plasma in the animal body. Usually a solution of gelatin or dextran.
therapeutic plasma concentration
a therapy-response relationship determined only by experiment; the plasma level which is matched by the desired therapeutic response.
plasma thromboplastin antecedent
clotting factor XI; see plasma thromboplastin antecedent.
plasma turbidity test
a qualitative test for fat absorption, performed by comparing the turbidity of plasma before and 2, 3 and 4 hours after the oral administration of fats, usually vegetable oil. Results are greatly influenced by delays in gastric emptying, so normally this test can only be relied upon to rule out malabsorption or maldigestion when evidence of absorption is found.
plasma volume
the estimation of plasma volume is essential to a complete knowledge of a patient's fluid status. The common technique is by the intravenous injection of a known amount of a dye such as Evans blue and the subsequent measurement of the dilution that it has undergone in a set time period.
References in periodicals archive ?
Topic Source, y 1 rVIIA in liver transplant/RCTs A Lodge et al, (9) 2005; Planinsic et al, (10) 2005 2 Plasma exchange for myeloma Clark etal, (11) 2005; kidney/RCTs B Zucchelli et al, (12) 1988 3 Platelet transfusion thresholds for Howard et al, (13) lumbar puncture/observational 2000; Howard studies et al, (14) 2002 4 Leukoreduction versus CMV- Bowden et al, (15) seronegative blood/direct com- 1995; Nichols et parison of a randomized al, (16) 2003 controlled trial and an observational study Curricular Goals No.
Association between performance of plasma exchange with administration of cyclophoshamide and survival was found to be significant (P<0.
1-6) The use of steroids, (1-6) azathioprine (2) and plasma exchange (2,6) have had limited success.
We began to do the operations after one of our kidney patients flew to the USA for plasma exchange and our consultant kidney specialist Dr Robert Higgins realised he had trained the doctor involved.
If plasma is used as the replacement product, the procedure may also be called a plasma exchange.
The first plasma exchange was well tolerated, nevertheless, the patient complained of a moderate headache and hiccoughs.
30 HE inspects the new pounds 40,000 plasma exchange machine which a Leicester firm, Cobe, loaned to the hospital because of the crisis.
Call for Expressions of Interest for scientific research grant focused on the efficacy and use of plasma exchange therapy
Supply of plasma exchange for Regional Blood Transfusion Center and Tissue Bank Sector Granada-AlmerE[degrees]a Platform Logistics Health of Granada.
Others receiving the alternative burdensome treatments of dialysis and plasma exchange with their severe co-morbidities leading to premature death.