plant toxin


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phy·to·tox·in

(fī'tō-tok'sin),
A toxic substance of plant origin.
Synonym(s): plant toxin
[phyto- + G. toxikon, poison]

toxin

(tok'sin) [ tox(ic) + -in]

anthrax toxin

The three proteins made by the infectious bacterium Bacillus anthracis responsible for the deadly effects of anthrax. Anthrax toxin includes protective antigen, which helps lethal and edema factors enter and kill cells by disrupting the cell membrane's normal biochemical functions.

bacterial toxin

A poison produced by bacteria that cause cell damage. They include exotoxins, e.g., those secreted by Staphylococcus aureus and Corynebacterium diphtheriae, and endotoxins. Endotoxins continue to cause damage even after the bacteria are killed.
See: bacteria

botulinum toxin type A

A neuromuscular blocking drug used to paralyze muscles, esp. muscles in spasm. It is also used for cosmetic purposes, e.g., by those desirous of maintaining a fixed facial appearance.

botulinus toxin

A neurotoxin that blocks acetylcholine release, produced by Clostridium botulinum, the causative organism for botulism. Seven types of the toxin have been identified.

dermonecrotic toxin

Any of a group of toxins that can cause necrosis of the skin. Coagulase-positive Staphylococcus aureus produces several such toxins.
Synonym: exfoliative toxin See: Kawasaki disease; staphylococcal scaled skin syndrome; toxic shock syndrome

Dick toxin

See: Dick toxin

diphtheria toxin

The toxin produced by Corynebacterium diphtheriae.

diphtheria toxin for Schick test

The toxin used for determining immunity to diphtheria.
See: Schick test

dysentery toxin

The exotoxin of various species of Shigella.

erythrogenic toxin

The former name for the streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxins.

exfoliative toxin

Dermonecrotic toxin.

iota toxin

Either of two disease-causing proteins (Ib and Ia) released by the bacterium Clostridium perfringens. Ia binds to Ib and gains entry into the host cell cytoplasm. Ib subsequently disrupts the actin cytoskeleton and kills the cell.

plant toxin

Phytotoxin.

reproductive toxin

Any chemical or physical agent that destroys or inactivates the ovaries or testes, damages chromosomes, adversely effects reproductive hormones, or has a harmful impact on a developing fetus.

Shiga toxin

See: Shiga toxin.
References in periodicals archive ?
The interaction between other insects and plant toxins exposed to steady temperatures would likely be similar to that seen with hornworms, Stamp predicts.
The researchers are using an approach known as toxicoproteomics to study how the plant toxins affect livestock health.
After material on principles, chapters characterize the most important food-borne toxicants, such as endogenous plant toxins, pollutants, mycotoxins, food additives, and veterinary drugs and feed additives.
Charnley (in her letter) and Mattsson (2000) would broaden the risk framework for pesticides to include natural plant toxins, and their argument is beguiling: Plants produce toxins as a stress response to predators; pesticides reduce predator populations and therefore stress; ergo, pesticide-treated plants have less stress and can produce more nutritious chemicals.
Possible agents include bacterial toxins (e.g., Staphy-lococcus aureus enterotoxin and Bacillus cereus emetic toxin); mycotoxins (e.g., deoxynivalenol [DON], acetyl-deoxynivalenol, and other tricothecenes), trace metals, nonmetal ions (e.g., fluorine, bromine, and iodine), plant toxins (e.g., alkaloids such as solanines, opiates, ipecac, and ergot; lectins such as phytohemagglutinin; and glycosides), pesticides (e.g., pyrethrins, organophosphates, and chlorinated hydrocarbons), food additives (e.g., bromate, glutamate, nitrite, salicylate, sorbate, and sulfite), detergents (e.g., anionic detergents and quaternary amines), fat-soluble vitamins, spoilage factors (e.g., biogenic amines, putrefaction, and free fatty acids), or an unknown toxin.
Other scientists have found that factors such as temperature can boost insects, resistance to plant toxins (SN: 4/9/94, p.230).
Washington, May 1 (ANI): In a new study, scientists have detected common plant toxins that affect human health and ecosystems in smoke from forest fires.
Clinical testing, he explains, has proven that Ivy-Dry Defense puts down a chemical barrier on the skin and prevents plant toxins from penetrating and causing irritation.
Biologic effects of plant toxins and aflatoxins in rats.
Other harmful plant toxins include alkaloid compounds found in lupines (members of the pea family), poison-hemlock, and various tobacco species, as well as larkspur.
However, shuffling genes has elevated natural plant toxins in the past, says Jack Doyle, director of the agriculture and biotechnology project at the Environmental Policy Institute in Washington, D.C.