plant breeding


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plant breeding

the science that aims to improve the quality and yield of plants by the genetic engineering of varieties. The main tool of the plant breeder is SELECTION, by which it is possible to alter the genetic constitution of a plant type, provided that genetic variability is present in the original strains. Another method of improvement is the crossing together of inbred lines to produce HETEROSIS in the hybrids (see GREEN REVOLUTION). Plant breeding has lead to a great improvement in crop yield, better harvesting (e.g. with dwarf varieties) and improvements in the natural resistance of plants to pathogens. Recently, cell and tissue cultures using EXPLANTS have begun to be used by plant breeders, to produce
  1. (a) multiple copies (CLONES) of sterile types;
  2. (b) the development of forms with new chromosome combinations;
  3. (c) HAPLOIDS (2) which can be induced to become fertile DIPLOIDS (2) (the latter forming PURE BREEDING LINES).
References in periodicals archive ?
Plant breeding is the science of creating new varieties through the modification of the plant genome, which accelerates the production of plants with desired traits, such as higher productivity, nutritional value, and enhanced tolerance against drought and disease.
Release date- 26072019 - One year ago, the Court of Justice of the European Union issued a ruling on genetic methods in plant breeding: on 25 July 2018, the judges ruled that plants bred using modern molecular biological methods (genome editing) fall into the category of genetically modified organisms.
Luisa Trindade (Lisbon, 1971) studied Plant Breeding at the Technical University of Lisbon and graduated in 1995.
Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics Chairman Dr Tanwir Malik said with better fodder usage, animal milk production could be enhanced.
Plant breeding as a scientific discipline evolved in the early 1900s, as part of the Land Grant University system.
Muazzam Jamil, Chairman Plant Breeding and Genetics, Prof.
In 2008, Dr Dagnoko obtained her PhD in Plant Breeding and Genetics with minor in International Agriculture from Cornell University, Ithaca (New York).
The organization is working to advance plant breeding and agronomic training in Africa for improving crops and nutrition.
Therefore, this special issue was organized, comprising eleven original research papers and three reviews aimed to highlight recent advances in (1) comparative genomics for plant breeding, (2) transcriptome analysis for plant breeding, (3) genotyping and marker-assisted breeding, and (4) recombinant DNA technology (Figure 1).
in 1978, both in plant breeding and cytogenetics from ISU.
Hundreds of farmers have visited Abundant Bloomsdale' spinach fields to learn about on-farm plant breeding and organic seed production over the course of the project.
Ashoka 200F was developed for resource-poor farmers, using a new method of plant breeding. Instead of conventional plant breeding, when thousands of plants are crossed in the hope of finding beneficial traits, fewer plants are crossed, but carefully selected for desired characteristics, such as drought tolerance and a good yield.