placental insufficiency


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insufficiency

 [in″sŭ-fish´en-se]
inability to perform properly an allotted function; called also incompetence.
adrenal insufficiency abnormally diminished activity of the adrenal gland; called also hypoadrenalism.
adrenocortical insufficiency abnormally diminished secretion of corticosteroids by the adrenal cortex; see also addison's disease. Called also hypoadrenocorticism and hypocorticism.
aortic insufficiency inadequate closure of the aortic valve, permitting aortic regurgitation.
coronary insufficiency decreased supply of blood to the myocardium resulting from constriction or obstruction of the coronary arteries, but not accompanied by necrosis of the myocardial cells. Called also myocardial ischemia.
ileocecal insufficiency inability of the ileocecal valve to prevent backflow of contents from the cecum into the ileum.
mitral insufficiency inadequate closure of the mitral valve, permitting mitral regurgitation.
placental insufficiency dysfunction of the placenta, with reduction in the area of exchange of nutrients; it often leads to fetal growth retardation.
pulmonary valve insufficiency inadequate closure of the pulmonary valve, permitting pulmonic regurgitation.
respiratory insufficiency see respiratory insufficiency.
thyroid insufficiency hypothyroidism.
tricuspid insufficiency incomplete closure of the tricuspid valve, resulting in tricuspid regurgitation.
valvular insufficiency failure of a cardiac valve to close perfectly, causing valvular regurgitation; see also aortic, mitral, pulmonary, and tricuspid insufficiency.
velopharyngeal insufficiency inadequate velopharyngeal closure, due to a condition such as cleft palate or muscular dysfunction, resulting in defective speech.
venous insufficiency inadequacy of the venous valves and impairment of venous return from the lower limbs (venous stasis), often with edema and sometimes with stasis ulcers at the ankle.

placental insufficiency

an abnormal condition of pregnancy, manifested clinically by a retarded rate of fetal and uterine growth. One or more placental abnormalities cause dysfunction of maternal-placental or fetal-placental circulation sufficient to compromise fetal nutrition and oxygenation. Some of the abnormalities that can result in placental insufficiency are abnormal implantation of the placenta, multiple pregnancy, abnormal attachments of the umbilical cord or anomalies of the cord itself, and abnormalities of the placental membranes. Histopathological abnormalities that can cause placental insufficiency include intervillous thrombi, placental infarction, and breaks in the placental membrane that result in fetal bleeding into the maternal circulation. Placental insufficiency also may result from placental senescence in postmaturity; systemic diseases, such as erythroblastosis fetalis and diabetes mellitus; or bacterial, viral, parasitic, or fungal infections. Also called placental dysfunction. See also intrauterine growth retardation, postmature infant.
References in periodicals archive ?
Women with severe IUGR with placental insufficiency as diagnosed by umbilical artery Doppler were included in the study (n = 18).
Pathological examination of the villi in patients with placental insufficiency of infectious origin.
Kaiser Wilhelm syndrome, neonatal brachial plexus palsy due to placental insufficiency, is unlikely to be a cause of neonatal brachial plexus palsy.
Placental insufficiency in relation to postterm pregnancy and fetal postmaturity.
We postulate that the MCA PSV was not raised because of the combination of hypoxia due to placental insufficiency and possibly episodes of hypovolaemia, superimposed on the effects of (sub)acute anaemia due to fetal blood loss.
The third most-common fetal surgery based on NAFTNet records, are various types of selective umbilical cord occlusions in twin pregnancies, for reasons such as intrauterine growth retardation, placental insufficiency, and other situations where problems with one twin puts a healthy twin at risk, said Dr.
Failure of the normal uterine physiological changes to occur and the development of intra-placental pathology will ensure placental insufficiency and the features that accompany are failing placenta, i.
Aiming for "normal" blood pressure in a pregnant patient with chronic hypertension may set the fetus up for problems by worsening preexisting placental insufficiency, Christy Isler, M.
After reviewing a number of studies, Devoe concluded that NST is "a feasible testing modality for most high-risk conditions with an inherent risk of intrauterine growth retardation, fetal hypoxia, or placental insufficiency.
Important obstetric criteria include recurrent pregnancy loss, foetal death, severe preeclampsia, or placental insufficiency requiring delivery prior to 34 weeks gestation.
Accelerated villous maturation is a common pattern that may be found in mild, moderate, or severe forms of placental insufficiency, which includes FGR, preeclampsia, and preterm labor.