placental insufficiency


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insufficiency

 [in″sŭ-fish´en-se]
inability to perform properly an allotted function; called also incompetence.
adrenal insufficiency abnormally diminished activity of the adrenal gland; called also hypoadrenalism.
adrenocortical insufficiency abnormally diminished secretion of corticosteroids by the adrenal cortex; see also addison's disease. Called also hypoadrenocorticism and hypocorticism.
aortic insufficiency inadequate closure of the aortic valve, permitting aortic regurgitation.
coronary insufficiency decreased supply of blood to the myocardium resulting from constriction or obstruction of the coronary arteries, but not accompanied by necrosis of the myocardial cells. Called also myocardial ischemia.
ileocecal insufficiency inability of the ileocecal valve to prevent backflow of contents from the cecum into the ileum.
mitral insufficiency inadequate closure of the mitral valve, permitting mitral regurgitation.
placental insufficiency dysfunction of the placenta, with reduction in the area of exchange of nutrients; it often leads to fetal growth retardation.
pulmonary valve insufficiency inadequate closure of the pulmonary valve, permitting pulmonic regurgitation.
respiratory insufficiency see respiratory insufficiency.
thyroid insufficiency hypothyroidism.
tricuspid insufficiency incomplete closure of the tricuspid valve, resulting in tricuspid regurgitation.
valvular insufficiency failure of a cardiac valve to close perfectly, causing valvular regurgitation; see also aortic, mitral, pulmonary, and tricuspid insufficiency.
velopharyngeal insufficiency inadequate velopharyngeal closure, due to a condition such as cleft palate or muscular dysfunction, resulting in defective speech.
venous insufficiency inadequacy of the venous valves and impairment of venous return from the lower limbs (venous stasis), often with edema and sometimes with stasis ulcers at the ankle.

placental insufficiency

an abnormal condition of pregnancy, manifested clinically by a retarded rate of fetal and uterine growth. One or more placental abnormalities cause dysfunction of maternal-placental or fetal-placental circulation sufficient to compromise fetal nutrition and oxygenation. Some of the abnormalities that can result in placental insufficiency are abnormal implantation of the placenta, multiple pregnancy, abnormal attachments of the umbilical cord or anomalies of the cord itself, and abnormalities of the placental membranes. Histopathological abnormalities that can cause placental insufficiency include intervillous thrombi, placental infarction, and breaks in the placental membrane that result in fetal bleeding into the maternal circulation. Placental insufficiency also may result from placental senescence in postmaturity; systemic diseases, such as erythroblastosis fetalis and diabetes mellitus; or bacterial, viral, parasitic, or fungal infections. Also called placental dysfunction. See also intrauterine growth retardation, postmature infant.
References in periodicals archive ?
Placental calcification is associated with a 40-fold increase in the incidence of IUGR, (intrauterine growth restriction), which is also a consequence of placental insufficiency.
The fetal origins hypothesis: placental insufficiency and inheritance versus maternal malnutrition in well-nourished populations.
Kaiser Wilhelm syndrome, neonatal brachial plexus palsy due to placental insufficiency, is unlikely to be a cause of neonatal brachial plexus palsy.
There is convincing evidence from meta-analyses that Doppler assessment of the umbilical artery in pregnancies at high risk of placental insufficiency is of clinical benefit and improves perinatal outcome.
Placental insufficiency in relation to postterm pregnancy and fetal postmaturity.
There had been a placental insufficiency and the child had died in the womb.
EMA's Committee for Orphan Medicinal Products recommends Magnus Growth Therapy for Placental Insufficiency for Orphan Designation
The patterns should not be confused with the clinical term placental insufficiency, which indicates a complication of pregnancy in which the placenta cannot carry enough oxygen and/or nutrients to the growing fetus and usually implies the presence of FGR.
The third most-common fetal surgery based on NAFTNet records, are various types of selective umbilical cord occlusions in twin pregnancies, for reasons such as intrauterine growth retardation, placental insufficiency, and other situations where problems with one twin puts a healthy twin at risk, said Dr.
Developmental biology of the placenta and the origins of placental insufficiency.
Failure of the normal uterine physiological changes to occur and the development of intra-placental pathology will ensure placental insufficiency and the features that accompany are failing placenta, i.
Placental insufficiency may precede the birth of a small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infant.