(2) (The anterior drawer test has too low a sensitivity to rule out ACL injuries, and the pivot shift test
is a bit too challenging to be performed reliably.)
None of the patients had pivot shift test
There was no anterior or posterior drawer, she was stable to varus and valgus stresses, and her pivot shift test
The anterior drawer test and pivot shift test
were simulated with dynamic analysis technology.
Pivot shift test
: The pivot shift test
is a dynamic test which also tests the integrity of the ACL.
The other 2 tests, the Lachman test and the pivot shift test
, are more difficult to perform and are used less often, especially by physicians untrained in their use.
* Ligament laxity was assessed using Lachman's test, Anterior drawer's test and Pivot shift test
The posterolateral rotatory pivot shift test
is done with the forearm in pronation
Orthopaedic surgeons can clinically reproduce this symptom when performing the pivot shift test
, first described by Galway and colleagues in 1972, as reported here from a subsequent publication.
Clinically, the orthopedic literature abounds with several descriptions of physical examination procedures and diagnostic tests to specifically assess the integrity of the menisci, such as joint line tenderness (JLT), (24) Apley compression test, (23) Anderson medial-lateral grind test, (25) McMurray's test, (26) Bounce home maneuver (24) and newer tests such as the Axially loaded pivot shift test
, (10) KKU knee compression rotation test (27), Ege's test (22) and Thessaly test.
The original pivot shift test
was demonstrated by Galway and Mc Intosh in 1972.
One of the most useful tests employed for chronic ACL insufficiency is the pivot shift test
, which assists in determining to what extent the ACL has been torn.