pituitary adenoma


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adenoma

 [ad″ĕ-no´mah]
a benign epithelial tumor in which the cells form recognizable glandular structures or in which the cells are derived from glandular epithelium.
acidophilic adenoma in a classification system formerly used for pituitary adenomas, an adenoma whose cells stain pale pink with acid dyes; most adenomas that secreted excessive amounts of growth hormone were in this group
ACTH-secreting adenoma (adrenocorticotrophic hormone–secreting adenoma) corticotroph adenoma.
basophilic adenoma in a classification system formerly used for pituitary adenomas, an adenoma whose cells stain pale blue with basic dyes; most adenomas that secreted excessive amounts of adrenocorticotrophic hormone were in this group.
chromophobe adenoma (chromophobic adenoma) a pituitary adenoma composed of cells that lack acidophilic or basophilic granules; this is the same entity as the more precisely named null-cell a.
corticotrope adenoma (corticotroph adenoma) a pituitary adenoma made up predominantly of corticotrophs; excessive corticotropin secretion may cause Cushing's disease or Nelson's syndrome. Called also ACTH-secreting or adrenocorticotropic hormone–secreting adenoma and corticotropinoma.
endocrine-active adenoma a pituitary adenoma that secretes excessive amounts of a hormone; see prolactinoma, corticotroph adenoma, gonadotroph adenoma, growth hormone–secreting adenoma, and thyrotroph adenoma. Called also hyperfunctional or hyperfunctioning adenoma.
endocrine-inactive adenoma a pituitary adenoma that does not secrete excessive amounts of any hormone; many null-cell adenomas are of this type. Called also nonfunctional or nonfunctioning adenoma and nonsecreting or nonsecretory adenoma.
gonadotrope adenoma (gonadotroph adenoma) a rare type of pituitary adenoma made up of gonadotroph-like cells that secrete excessive amounts of follicle-stimulating hormone or luteinizing hormone or both; it may cause precocious puberty, visual disturbances, or hypogonadism.
growth hormone–secreting adenoma a pituitary adenoma made up of somatotroph-like cells that secrete excessive amounts of growth hormone; it may cause gigantism in children or acromegaly in adults. Called also somatotrope or somatotroph adenoma and eosinophilic adenoma.
hepatocellular adenoma a large, fleshy, hypervascular tumor of the liver occurring chiefly in women of childbearing age and associated with oral contraceptive use. It is composed of sheets of cells with areas of hemorrhage and necrosis and has a tendency to hemorrhage and rupture; it may become malignant.
Hürthle cell adenoma a benign hürthle cell tumor.
hyperfunctional adenoma (hyperfunctioning adenoma) endocrine-active adenoma.
lactotrope adenoma (lactotroph adenoma) prolactinoma.
liver cell adenoma hepatocellular adenoma.
nonfunctional adenoma (nonfunctioning adenoma) endocrine-inactive adenoma.
nonsecreting adenoma (nonsecretory adenoma) endocrine-inactive adenoma.
null-cell adenoma a pituitary adenoma whose cells give negative results on tests for staining and hormone secretion; although classically they were considered to be composed of sparsely granulated or degranulated (nonfunctioning) cells, some contain functioning cells and may be associated with a hyperpituitary state such as acromegaly or Cushing's syndrome. These tumors are often discovered clinically only when they have grown large and are pressing on surrounding structures. Called also chromophobic adenoma.
pituitary adenoma a benign neoplasm of the anterior pituitary gland; some contain hormone-secreting cells (endocrine-active adenomas) but some are not secretory (endocrine-inactive adenomas).
plurihormonal adenoma an endocrine-active adenoma that secretes more than one kind of hormone.
prolactin cell adenoma (prolactin-secreting adenoma) prolactinoma.
sebaceous adenoma hypertrophy or benign hyperplasia of a sebaceous (oil-secreting) gland.
adenoma seba´ceum nevoid hyperplasia of sebaceous glands, forming multiple yellow papules or nodules on the face. See also nevus.
somatotrope adenoma (somatotroph adenoma) growth hormone–secreting adenoma.
thyroid-stimulating hormone–secreting adenoma thyrotroph adenoma.
thyrotrope adenoma (thyrotroph adenoma) (TSH-secreting adenoma) a rare type of pituitary adenoma made up of thyrotroph-like cells that secrete excess thyrotropin and cause hyperthyroidism; called also thyroid stimulating hormone–secreting adenoma.
villous adenoma a large soft papillary polyp on the mucosa of the large intestine.

pi·tu·i·tar·y ad·e·no·ma

a benign neoplasm of the pituitary generally arising in the adenohypophysis.

pituitary adenoma

An adenoma of the pituitary gland, often of one of its functional cell types. It may produce excessive amounts of hormones such as prolactin, growth hormone, or adrenocorticotrophic hormone, or it may be clinically silent.
See also: adenoma
References in periodicals archive ?
Genetic and epigenetic mutations of tumor suppressive genes in sporadic pituitary adenoma.
Pituitary adenomas are generally slowly growing, benign neoplasms of epithelial origin originating from the adenohypophysis.
Apoplexy in non functioning pituitary adenoma after one dose of leuprolide as treatment for prostate cancer.
7-8) GKRS can successfully treat the patients with various intracranial tumors including metastatic brain tumors (MBTs), meningiomas, vestibular schwannomas (VS), astrocytomas and pituitary adenomas etc.
Therefore, an argument could be made that the patient would have been spared an additional year of distress had the unlikely diagnosis of a pituitary adenoma been considered on her initial presentation.
Analysis of recurrences by pituitary adenoma types demonstrated that in 21.
Pituitary apoplexy is an uncommon cause of worst headache of life, and denotes symptomatic hemorrhage within the pituitary gland, usually into a pituitary adenoma.
Incidence, clinical manifestations, and course of water and electrolyte metabolism disturbances following transsphenoidal pituitary adenoma surgery: A prospective observational study.
Cushing's initially described case was shown to be secondary to overproduction of ACTH from a pituitary adenoma.
Immunohistochemical staining of the pituitary adenoma specimen was positive for FSH (Figure 2) and LH, whereas staining was negative for GH, prolactin, and adrenocorticotropic hormone.