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The affinities of atropine, scopolamine, biperiden and pirenzepine, the main muscarinic receptor antagonists are shown in Table 2.
Pirenzepine is also an anti-muscarinic drug that is routinely used in the treatment of gastric ulcers.
Groups of rats (n = 8-10 rats per group) at oestrous, dioestrous-1, or dioestrous-2 (Figure 2) were unilaterally microinjected in the left or right POA-AHA region with the following: (a) 1 [micro]L of vehicle (0.9% saline v/v); (b) 100pg/[micro]L of pirenzepine dihydrochloride (PZP) (Sigma-Aldrich, Mexico), an [m.sub.1]AChR antagonist; and (c) 100pg/[micro]L of methoctramine (MTC) (Sigma-Aldrich, Mexico), an [m.sub.2]AChR antagonist.
(vi) Use of ocular or systemic medications containing atropine, pirenzepine, or antiepileptic medications in recent 3 months
10 [micro]M and 100 [micro]M carbachol caused a large increase of AUC, which was counteracted by 10 [micro]M pirenzepine. In calcium-free solution, there was almost no effect of carbachol.
Tashima, "Muscarinic cholinergic receptor subtypes in human detrusor muscle studied by labeled and nonlabeled pirenzepine, AFDX-116 and 4DAMP," Urologia Internationalis, vol.
Nevertheless, the blockages of [M.sub.1] or [M.sub.2] muscarinic receptors by pirenzepine or methoctramine, respectively, worsen Fade (50 Hz) induced by cisatracurium when this neuromuscular relaxant causes 17% Fade (50 Hz) (Pereira et al., 2012).
Takeyama, "Effects of pirenzepine on Dai-kenchu-to-induced elevation of the plasma neuropeptide levels in humans," Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, vol.
Atropine, pirenzepine dihydrochloride, N,N-dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride solution (TTC), 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl) -2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT), and L-glutamic acid monosodium salt were purchased from Sigma (St.
Two kinds of muscarinic receptors, termed the [M.sub.1] and [M.sub.2] subtypes, were suggested to be distinguishable based on their different affinities for an antagonist, pirenzepine, and to be dominant in cerebral and atrial tissues, respectively.
Using the M1 receptor antagonist pirenzepine (PIR), the M3 receptor antagonist 4-diphenyl-acetoxy-N-methyl-piperidine methiodide (4-DAMP), and the cholinergic agonist carbachol, here we investigated the potential role of Ml and M3 mAChRs in mLTD induction and in increasing phosphorylated ERK levels in juvenile and adults rats.
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