HFA versions of pirbuterol
or triamcinolone are in development.
General information about Maxair Autohaler (pirbuterol
acetate inhalation aerosol).
Treatment reaction 21 Acetaminophen No 60 Subcutaneous epinephrine No (1:1,000), nebulized albuterol, diphenhydramine (25 mg) 62 2 sprays of pirbuterol
, 2 sprays Yes of azelastine, nebulized albuterol, prednisone (30 mg) 65 Subcutaneous epinephrine No (1:1,000), 2 sprays of azelastine 68 Subcutaneous epinephrine No (1:1,000), nebulized albuterol 97 Diphenhydramine, No subcutaneous epinephrine (1:1,000), nebulized albuterol Table 3.
Beta-2-agonist inhalers, including albuterol, pirbuterol
, and terbutaline, taken 15 minutes before exercise can reduce or eliminate symptoms in up to 90% of patients for up to four to six hours.
Another class of drugs, beta agonists, such as albuterol, bitolterol, metaproterenol, pirbuterol
, and terbutaline, are used either when the symptoms occur or just before an activity that may cause symptoms.
Metered-dose inhaler Albuterol (Ventolin, Proventil) Epinephrine (Medihaler-Epi, Primatene Mist) Isoethadne (Bronchometer) Isoproterenol (Isuprel Medihaler) Isoproterenol and phenylephrine (Duo-Medihaler) Metaproterenol (Metaprel, Alupent) Pirbuterol
(Maxair) Salmeterol (Serevent) Terbutaline (Breathair)
Short-acting agents include albuterol, levalbuterol, and pirbuterol
, although these agents at one time were considered longer acting in comparison with the ultrashort-acting catecholamines such as isoetharine.
Other short- acting beta agonists used for asthma include levalbuterol (Xopenex HFA) and pirbuterol
One alternative to overcome the difficulty of simultaneously actuating and inhaling from an MDI is to use a breath-actuated MDI, such as 3M's Maxair Autohaler (pirbuterol
We searched MEDLINE (1966-2000), EMBASE (1974-2000), and The Cochrane Library (through August 2000) using the key words "bronchitis" or "cough", together with the terms "adrenergic beta-agonist (exp)," "bronchodilator agents (exp)," "sympathomimetic (exp)," "albuterol," "salbutamol," "bitolterol," "isoetharine," "metaproterenol," "pirbuterol
," "salmeterol," "terbutaline," "fenoterol," "formoterol," or "procaterol" (note that albuterol and salbutamol are the same compound).
Therapeutic Agents Available in Metered Dose Inhaler Duration Average Peak of Cost per Pregnancy Effect(*) Effect(*) Inhaler(**) Category Drug (minutes) (hours) ($) (FDA) [beta]-Adrenergic Isoproterenol 5-15 1-2 23.63 C Isoetharine 15-60 2-3 26.98 C Metaproterenol 30-60 3-4 20.23 C Terbutaline 60 4 22.10 B Albuterol 30-60 4 24.16 C Bitolterol 30-60 5 18.00 C Pirbuterol
30-60 5 18.82 C Anticholinergic Ipratropium 60-120 3-6 26.80 B Biscromones Cromolyn 15-30 2-6 37.15 B (*)Data from Physicians' Desk Reference, Drug Evaluations, and Bar-Yish ay et al. (**) Derived from pharmacy price quotes.
The more recent generation of beta-2 agonists, including albuterol, levalbuterol, bitolterol and pirbuterol
, have minimum untoward cardiovascular effects, making them ideal for managing all forms of asthma.