with 5 x [10.sup.6], 1 x [10.sup.6], and 5 x [10.sup.5] CFU presented piloerection
, fever, and significant weight loss (data not shown) and died after 1, 5 and 11 days, respectively.
The present findings indicate that Pc administration to rats pretreated with Li initiated cholinergic symptoms including miosis, piloerection
, diarrhea, and mild tremors followed by seizures.
No clinical symptoms for maternal toxicity (head flicking, hyper- or hypoactivity, piloerection
, tremors, convulsions, or deaths) were observed in any of the experimental groups.
In the present acute toxicity study our results contrast with those reported for aqueous extracts, where piloerection
and palpebral ptosis is observed (Morales et al.
Shivering was graded on a scale similar to that validated by Tsai and Chu (8):0 = no shivering, 1 = piloerection
or peripheral vasoconstriction but no visible shivering, 2 = muscular activity in only one muscle group, 3= muscular activity in more than one muscle group but not generalized and 4 = shivering involving the whole body.
This screening provides a general estimate of the toxicity of the substance of the conscious state and general disposal, activity, and coordination of the motor system, reflexes, and activities of the central nervous system (posture, exploratory movements, stereotypes, presence of clonic, or tonic movements) and the autonomic nervous system (respiratory pattern, piloerection
, and pupil size).
The animals were observed for general behavior and any toxic symptoms produced by the oil, such as cyanosis, tremors, convulsions, ataxia, extension of the limbs, increased muscle tone, piloerection
, tail flick, salivation, drowsiness, diarrhea, ptosis, respiratory effects, arched back, loss of righting, abdominal gripping and blanching.
Besides this there was lacrimation, salivation, shivering and Piloerection
which was observed as puffing of fur.
In none of these doses usual signs of peripheral anticholinesterase inhibition, such as piloerection
, diarrhea or writing was observed.
On the first day, the animals were evaluated every 10 min for 4 h followed by 24, 48 and 72 h for any changes in spontaneous motor activity, gate, respiration, writhing, piloerection
, etc., and up to 30 days for any mortality (Kulkarni, 1999).
The animals were observed continuously for 1 h and then half hourly for 4h for any gross behavioural changes for general motor activity, writhing, convulsion, response to tail pinching, gnawing, piloerection
, pupil size, fecal output, feeding behaviour etc.
Animal behavior (socialization, mobility and piloerection
), death, weight gain, hematocrit and blood leukocyte counts were evaluated daily for 7 days.