Pilei of the mushrooms in the immature physiological stage had higher values of DM, P, N, and A compared with equivalent pilei in mushrooms at the mature physiological stage.
The results of the whole mushrooms represent intermediate values between the stipes and pilei for all mycochemical characteristics analyzed.
According to Chang and Miles , the amount of (1[right arrow]4)-[beta]-glucan in the mushroom can also be associated with the amount of cellulose, with the highest amount being found in the stipes of immature mushrooms (7.29%) and in the immature of whole mushroom (7.21%), which may justify the market of this mushroom with closed pilei.
The scatter plot analysis of the first two principal components showed three major regions (Figure 2, morphological parts), associated with the morphological parts of mushrooms: the left region, which had the lowest value for PC1, was associated with the pilei of the mushrooms; the opposite region, which had the highest value for PC1, was associated with the stipes; and the central region was associated with the whole mushrooms.
In this instance, there was a subdivision of the materials related to the morphological parts, stipes, and pilei, respectively.
From interpretation of the scatter plot, the results suggested that the pilei had a higher content of EV, M, HE, A, N, P, and ADF, compared to the stipes and whole mushrooms.
In our study, we propose that the concentration of some components in specific morphological parts (i.e., pilei) of the mushroom is related to biochemical processes involved in the reproduction of fungi, mainly formation and maturation of the spores (events of karyogamy, meiosis, and sporogenesis).
This methodology is extremely important for the formulation of new nutritional products to be applied in specific diets based on fungal foods, such as diets with high protein and mineral "ash" content (use of pilei) or diets with high carbohydrates and energy value content (use of stipes).
Caption: Figure 1: (a) Mushroom in different physiological stages (yellow arrow refers to mature mushroom with mature spore "dark brown spores"; red arrow refers to mature mushroom with immature spores; and blue arrow refers to immature mushrooms with closed pilei without lamella break).