Hyperpigmentation is usually secondary to an increase in melanin due to: (a) the stimulation of melanocytes or (b) a pigmentary incontinence
developed after an unspecified cutaneous inflammation.
Basal cell degeneration and pigmentary incontinence
in the dermis was not observed.
Histological sections of hyperpigmented macules show increased melanin pigment in the basal layer along with pigmentary incontinence
and decreased melanin pigment in hypopigmented macules [23-25].
They comprised such characteristic features as lymphohistiocytic bandlike infiltrate occupying the upper dermis and obscuring the dermoepidermal junction, irregular acanthosis resembling the typical saw-toothed appearance, extensive liquefactive degeneration of the basal layer of the epidermis with subepidermal clefts (Max Joseph spaces), pigmentary incontinence
, and numerous cytoid bodies forming huge clusters.
Liquefaction or hydropic degeneration of the basal layer leads to pigmentary incontinence
. A perivascular and perifollicular mononuclear inflammatory cell infiltrate is present in the superficial and deep dermis.
Dermis showed perivascular inflammatory infiltrate and pigmentary incontinence
Liquefactive degeneration of basal cells, pigmentary incontinence
and dilation of blood vessels are observed in the poikilodermatous stage.
Histopathological findings from forearm showed follicular plugging, perifollicular infiltrate of lymphocytes, vacuolar degeneration of basal keratinocytes with pigmentary incontinence
in dermis consistent with lichen planopilaris.
was present along with lot of pigmented macrophages which was found in sub-epithelial zone (Fig.
Histopathology of the pigmented lesion may show increased basal pigmentation, pigmentary incontinence
and melanophages (11, 12).
Other features of DLE like hyperkeratosis, follicular plugging, epidermal atrophy, basal layer vacuolization, basement membrane deposits, pigmentary incontinence
, perivascular inflammation, periappendageal inflammation, and collagen damage were also noted.
In the dermis, a scarce lymphohistiocytic or lichenoid infiltrate and pigmentary incontinence
with melanophages can be found.