Kamiya, "Effect of phytyl
side chain of vitamin E on its antioxidant activity," The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol.
Moreover, TRF possesses a special conformation in the membrane of phospholipid bilayer due to its unsaturated phytyl
Both tocopherols and tocotrienols (T3) belong to the family vitamin E, with each of them comprising four homologs ([alpha], [beta], [gamma], and [delta]); they differ structurally in that tocopherols contain a saturated phytyl
chain whereas tocotrienols possess an unsaturated isoprenoid side chain attached to 2-position on the chroman ring (Sen et al., 2006) (Fig.
(15) V[K.sub.1]'s substituent is a phytyl
chain on the 3' position, is mainly found in plants and is involved with photosynthesis.
Chlorophyllin is a sodium-copper salt derivative of chlorophyll where the central nucleus of magnesium is substituted by another metal such as copper, iron or cobalt and where the phytyl
and methyl ester groups are substituted by sodium or potassium (SARKAR et al., 1994), converting it into water soluble.
Tocopherols have a longer tail without double bonds (phytyl
), causing them to be stationary and consequently protect a more confined surface area of the cell membrane.
It is known that gamma-tocopherol inhibits human prostate cancer cell proliferation via down-regulation of cyclin-related signaling but tocopherol and tocotrienol metabolites with a shortened phytyl
chain, carboxyethyl hydroxychromans, were not previously investigated as anti-proliferative agents.