Revinage is rich in phytol, a precursor of phytanic acid
, that is a ligand of Retinoid X Receptor (RXR) as shown by in silico studies.
Refsum disease, also known as phytanic acid
storage disease, is an autosomal recessive genetic disease, belonging to hereditary motor sensory neuropathy Type-IV.
Boess et al., "Phytanic acid
, a natural peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) agonist, regulates glucose metabolism in rat primary hepatocytes," The Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology Journal, vol.
[sup] In this study, palmitic acid, phytanic acid
and behenic acid, which decreased significantly in the sera of TB patients compared with the healthy group, bronchiectasis, and COPD subgroups, may be among the products of the fatty acid consumption.
Biochemical investigations like RBC plasmalogen levels and phytanic acid
levels could not be done because of financial constraints.
Further biochemical studies showed high phytanic acid
(9.2; n < 5.28 [micro]mol/L) and low plasmalogen (3.2; n > 6.6) levels.
(3) Although a-oxidation does not require CoA intermediates (i.e., acyl-CoAs) and does not generate a high-energy phosphate, a-oxidation is important in the metabolism of phytanic acid
. Since phytanic acid
contains a methyl group on the 3-carbon position, [beta]-oxidation of the acid is blocked, but the acid can be degraded by [beta]-oxidation after the removal of one carbon from carboxylic end of the acid by [alpha]-oxidation (Fig.
Further, RP may occur associated with various genetic disorders such as: Usher syndrome (3); Leber congenital amaurosis (4); Bardet-Biedl syndrome (5); Alstrom disease (6); and Phytanic acid
storage disease (7) to name a few.
In the conventional analysis of plasma phytanic acid
, all lipids were first extracted in chloroform-methanol (1:1 by volume).
DEX, a glucocorticoid; MED, a progestin; PHY, a precursor to phytanic acid
, an RXR and PPAR[alpha] activator; and DBP, a weak estrogen and antiandrogen, did not significantly alter uterine weights (Figure 1).
Interest in phytol has focused mainly on its metabolism to phytanic acid
, a fatty acid that plays an important role in Refsum disease and several other peroxisomal diseases (8,9).
and pristanic acid are oxidized by sequential peroxisomal and mitochondrial reactions in cultured fibroblasts.