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Etymology: Gk, physis, nature, logos, science; Fr, jaune, yellow
a simple jaundice of newborns that involves the breaking down of the excessive number of red blood cells that may be present at birth.
neonatal jaundiceYellowing of a newborn’s skin during the neonatal period, which is caused by an increased bilirubin level in the blood, due to immaturity of liver function plus destruction of red cells. Neonatal jaundice appears between days 2 and 5 and clears by 2 weeks, and is more common in premature infants.
Nonphysiologic, prolonged, or pathologic jaundice in newborn, biliary atresia, ABO and/or Rh incompatibility, galactosaemia, cephalhaematoma, polycythemia, G6PD deficiency, neonatal sepsis, congenital infection (CMV), toxoplasmosis, syphilis, herpes, rubella, late-pregnancy use of sulfa drugs by mother, Crigler-Najjar syndrome, hereditary spherocytosis, cystic fibrosis, breast-milk jaundice, pyruvate kinase deficiency, thalassaemia, Gilbert’s syndrome, congenital hypothyroidism, Lucey-Driscoll syndrome, Gaucher’s disease, Niemann-Pick disease.
yellowness of skin, sclerae, mucous membranes, and excretions due to hyperbilirubinemia and deposition of bile pigments. Called also icterus. It is usually first noticeable in the sclera.
The pigment causing jaundice is called bilirubin. It is derived from hemoglobin that is released when erythrocytes are hemolyzed and therefore is constantly being formed and introduced into the blood as worn-out or defective erythrocytes are destroyed by the body. Normally the liver cells absorb the bilirubin and secrete it along with other bile constituents. If the liver is diseased, or if the flow of bile is obstructed, or if destruction of erythrocytes is excessive, the bilirubin accumulates in the blood and eventually will produce jaundice. Determination of the level of bilirubin in the blood is of value in detecting elevated bilirubin levels at the earliest stages before jaundice appears, when liver disease or hemolytic anemia is suspected.
jaundice without bilirubinemia, associated with elevated unconjugated bilirubin that is not excreted by the kidney.
that resulting from abnormality of bile flow in the liver.
jaundice associated with hemolytic anemia in which most of the bilirubin is unconjugated. Called also retention jaundice, prehepatic jaundice.
jaundice caused by injury to or disease of the liver cells.
see icteric index.
that due to an abnormality in bilirubin metabolism.
that due to blockage of the flow of bile, resulting in conjugated hyperbilirubinemia. Called also regurgitation jaundice.
mild icterus neonatorum during the first few days after birth.
obstructive jaundice (above).
see hepatocellular jaundice (above).