Conversion of phylloquinone
(Vitamin K1) into menaquinone-4 (Vitamin K2) in mice: two possible routes for menaquinone-4 accumulation in cerebra of mice.
Paterson et al., "Two-year randomized controlled trial of vitamin K1 (phylloquinone
) and vitamin D3 plus calcium on the bone health of older women," Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, vol.
In the present study, we analyzed 8 kale and 5 collard cultivars/accession grown under uniform environmental conditions for content of phytonutrients including glucosinolates, carotenoids, and fat-soluble vitamins E (as [alpha]- and [gamma]-tocopherols) and K (phylloquinone
(vitamin K1) intake and pulse pressure as a measure of arterial stiffness in older adults," Journal of Nutrition in Gerontology and Geriatrics, vol.
intake (vitamin K1) was not associated with PAD risk.
intake and risk of cardiovascular diseases in men.
There are two main forms of vitamin K: vitamin Kl, or phylloquinone
, which is found in leafy green vegetables and accounts for about 90% of the vitamin K in a typical Western diet; and vitamin K2, or menaquinones, which can be synthesized in the digestive tract by microflora.
Neogi and her associates defined vitamin K deficiency as a plasma level of phylloquinone
less than 0.5 nmol/L.
Vitamin K exists in two natural forms: vitamin K1, or phylloquinone
, found largely in green leafy vegetables, as well as some vegetable oils, such as canola and soybean oils; and vitamin K2, or menaquinone, for which meat and cheese are the primary dietary sources.
Prospective observational cohort of Framingham Offspring Study on plasma phylloquinone
(the primary form of vitamin K) showed that prevelance for osteophytes and the adjusted mean number of knee joints with osteophytes decreased significantly with increasing plasma phylloquinone
level so it shows significantly an association between low plasma levels of vitamin K and increased prevalence of OA manifestations in the hand and knee (63).
This study was originally designed to assess the effect of vitamin K1, or phylloquinone
, supplementation on changes in bone mineral density and vascular calcification.
The vitamin mix/kg diet consists of retinol (4.0mg), cholecalciferol (3.0mg), phylloquinone
(1.0mg), tocopherylacetate (111.75mg), thiamine hydrochloride (10.0mg), nicotinic acid (40mg), riboflavin (10mg), calcium pantothenate (40mg), folic acid (1.8mg), biotin (1.0mg) pyridoxine hydrochloride (10mg), 5 vitamin [B.sub.5] (5.0mg), choline chloride (1.0mg), ascorbic acid (75mg) and corn starch (17623.2mg).