That incident highlighted the vulnerability of both consumers and the shellfish aquaculture industry to the emergence of previously unknown phycotoxins
and revealed several gaps in phycotoxin
Modulation of cytosolic calcium levels of human lymphocytes by yessotoxin, a novel marine phycotoxin
Azaspiracid-1, a potent, non-apoptotic new phycotoxin
with several cell targets.
The Moroccan monitoring program to screen for the presence of lipophilic compounds employs the mouse bioassay (MBA), which does not allow distinguishing the contamination from different phycotoxin
families, such as DSP or AZP, because these compounds are detected altogether.
For this study, we used both the Phytoplankton and Phycotoxins
Monitoring Network and the Hydrological Monitoring Network for Arcachon Bay (Belin et al.
Proceedings of the 10th International IUPAC Symposium on Mycotoxins and Phycotoxins
The contributors, a good mix of academics and industrial experts, cover natural toxicants such as pyrrolizidine alkaloids, glucosinolates, phycotoxins
in seafood, mushroom toxins (including edible and toxic mushrooms), mycotoxins, phytoestrogens and beta-carboline alkaloids as well-as man-made elements such as nitrates and nitrites, acrylamide in heated foods, furan, chloropropanols and their fatty acid esters, hetrocyclic amines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.
11th International Symposium on Mycotoxins and Phycotoxins
However, a Spanish research team has looked into the possibility that the seals died from eating fish that had been contaminated with deadly phycotoxins
produced by a bloom of dinoflagellate algae.
Major chemical contaminants are then discussed in part two, including dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls, veterinary drug and pesticide residues, heat-generated and non-thermally-produced toxicants, D- and cross-linked amino acids, mycotoxins and phycotoxins
, and plant-derived contaminants.
The most common phycotoxins
in this region are saxitoxin and its congeners, collectively referred to as paralytic shellfish toxins, the causative agents of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) in humans.
are covered in alphabetical order and include: azaspiracids, brevetoxins, domoic acid, pectenotoxins, and yessotoxins.