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This article argues that career counseling existed in America as early as the 1870s in response to these societal forces and that the first practitioners of this field were phrenologists.
In their study The Female Offender (1893), the Italian phrenologists Cesare Lombroso and Guglielmo Ferrero too warned of this possibility, claiming woman "would become excessively erotic, weak in maternal feeling [and would, through] her love of violent exercise, her vices, and even her dress, increase her resemblance to the sterner sex" (187).
Phrenologists entered the ranks of tea leaves readers and circus palmists.
Another point of difference between phrenology and modern science is that phrenologists believed that abstract characteristics and qualities also had corresponding organs in the brain.
Drawn together by their intellectual natures, both women were abolitionists, Spiritualists, and phrenologists.
Chakras Phrenologists massage the head to feel lumps, which identify traits, and the client can then nurture or encourage their talents.
In this respect, Poe parallels Calvinist doctrine (from a detractor's perspective) with the insanity defense; the narrator suggests his culpability is minimized if the cause comes from spiritually wrought depravity, just as phrenologists and defense lawyers minimized culpability if the cause was physically wrought depravity.
Because the educational theories and pragmatic applications of American phrenologists put great emphasis on literacy and writing instruction, this paper looks at how certain leading phrenologists in mid-nineteenth-century America conducted nothing less than an educational crusade to revise the teaching of reading and writing in the emergent public school system.
It is as though phrenologists, under the pressure to conform to the prevailing standards of scientific rigor, went from measurements of the surface of the skull to determining cranial capacity.
The different Faculties of the Mind were then excited as l aid down by Phrenologists, Such as Mirth when she instantly broke forth into a hearty Laugh.
Ariela Gross notes that "the introduction of a `scientific' discourse about race into the courtroom, traces its roots to the well-documented rise of `racial science' among phrenologists and medical doctors during [the mid-nineteenth century.
Poe himself had been examined by phrenologists and he may have believed himself to have had a well-developed organ of time--consider, after all, just how expansive Poe's famous forehead is