Sacrifice of the phrenic
nerve necessitated a postoperative consultation with a physiotherapist for breathing assistance.
Samples of muscle tissue, 1 mm in width, were collected from the vicinity of phrenic
nerve distal branching where axons ending and end-plate regions are more profusely concentrated.
In the present study, we found a case that was connected with phrenic
nerve, and rest of them were isolated independently.
Given the satisfactory ultrasound imaging of the brachial plexus and the possible benefit of a more distal location from the phrenic
nerve, we used the paracoracoid approach for this case.
Although extremely rare, spinal cord compression due to cervical spine anomalies should be kept in the differential diagnosis of a baby presenting with encephalopathy, as it can cause phrenic
nerve palsy resulting in respiratory failure and neurological sequelae.
Parke and Whalen described two patients with severe cervical myelopathy who developed respiratory insufficiency related to phrenic
nerve palsy after cervical manipulation .
The diaphragm presented thickness with muscle fibers, which suggested a normal embryonic development and later perinatal traumatic injury of the phrenic
There was a significantly higher incidence of phrenic
nerve injury with cryoablation; however, most of these injuries resolved at 12 months.
For example, in laser-captured phrenic
motoneurons , mRNA for 5-[HT.sub.2A] receptors was upregulated 14 days after cervical hemisection, but had returned to normal or below at 21 days.
The complications were classified as in-hospital death, non-lethal complications and phrenic
nerve palsy (which mainly occurred in cryoballoon ablation).
To investigate the potential impact of topiramate on muscle contraction, phrenic
nerve-hemidiaphragm preparations were used as a neuromuscular junction model.
The extrahepatic collaterals (i.e., the internal thoracic artery, the right inferior phrenic
artery, and the omental artery) supplying the hepatic cystic lesions were also embolized using polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) particles (300–500-[micro]m; PVA foam embolization particles, PVA, Cook Incorporated, Bloomington, IN, USA), if necessary.