In 2016, the former CFDA adopted the 3T3 NRU Phototoxicity
Assay into the STSC (4), which was a milestone marking the formal entry of animal alternative methods into China's cosmetics standards system.
By using human retinal pigment epithelium cells, 10 (-7) to 10 (-5) M hypericin or fluorescence light applied separately did not show phototoxicity
; however, when applied together, they showed to be phototoxic to retina due to a decreased glutathione reductase activity and increased lipid peroxidation, and it has been noted that they may lead to early retinal and macular degeneration (52).
Mechanism of tetracycline phototoxicity
. J Invest Dermatol 1984; 83(3):179-83.
However, onycholysis, sunburn-like skin reaction after the very first dose of SPFX, and its temporal association is highly suggestive of SPFX phototoxicity
rather than photoallergy in our case.
However, several authors suggest that there is phototoxicity
and cellular destruction of melanocytes (melanocytes photo-damage) occurring due to QS 1064-nm Nd:YAG laser.
Photoaging and phototoxicity
from long-term voriconazole treatment in a 15-year-old girl.
SPIM technology reduces sampling times over conventional laser scanning confocal microscopes while reducing phototoxicity
and damaging side effects on living specimens.
Scenesse is approved in Europe as an orphan medicinal product for the prevention of phototoxicity
(anaphylactoid reactions and burns) in adult patients with EPP.
Risk of corneal, (45) and retinal, (46) phototoxicity
has also been established showing no associative damage.
Table 1 shows the phototoxicity
and dark toxicity of the xanthenes in HEp-2 after 6 h incubation with the dye.
Different wavelengths of visible light were used to study the phototoxicity